High-resolution MRI findings in patients with capsular warning syndrome
© Zhou et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Received: 4 September 2013
Accepted: 15 January 2014
Published: 20 January 2014
Capsular warning syndrome (CWS) is rare (1.5% of TIA presentations) but has a poor prognosis (7-day stroke risk of 60%). Up to date, the exact pathogenic mechanism of CWS has not been fully understood. We report the clinical presentations and high-resolution MRI (HR MRI) findings of two cases with capsular warning symptoms.
Case 1 was a 63-year-old man with a history of hypertension with recurrent episodes of left hemiparesis and dysarthria lasting 10 ~ 30 minutes. Case 2 was a 54-year-old woman with repetitive episodes of transient left hemiparesis and dysarthria lasting about 10 minutes. Capsular infarctions on DWI were demonstrated in the territory of a lenticulostriate artery in both 2 patients. HR MRI disclosed atherosclerotic plaques on the ventral wall of the MCA where enticulostriate arteries were arisen from, although traditional digital subtraction angiography showed normal. Aggressive medical therapy with dual antithrombotic agents and statin was effective in these two cases.
Our HR MRI data offer an insight into the pathophysiology of CWS which might be caused by atherosclerotic plaque in non-stenotic MCA wall. HR MRI might be a useful modality for characterizing atherosclerotic plaques in the MCA and detecting the pathophysiology of the CWS.
KeywordsCapsular warning syndrome High-resolution MRI Middle cerebral artery Atherosclerotic plaque
The term of capsular warning syndrome (CWS) was first described in 1993 in patients who presented repeated stereotyped episodes of subcortical transient ischemic attacks . It is a popular notion that the syndrome is associated with a high risk of developing a completed stroke [2, 3]. Up to date, little is known about pathogenic mechanisms and the role of atherosclerotic disease of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in CWS.
A few recent studies have confirmed the feasibility of using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR MRI) to depict the MCA wall and plaques in vivo [4, 5]. We report two cases with typical CWS. High-resolution MRI demonstrated small atherosclerotic plaques on the ventral wall of proximal MCA, although digital and MR angiography showed no abnormalities. According to the findings of HR MRI, possible pathogenic mechanisms of CWS are discussed.
This is the first study to date on HR MRI findings of MCA cross-section in patients with CWS. Capsular infarctions were demonstrated in the territory of a lenticulostriate artery on DWI in both 2 patients. Although cerebral vascular angiography showed no abnormalities, HR MRI disclosed atherosclerotic plaques on the ventral wall of MCA where enticulostriate arteries were arisen from. These HR MRI findings suggested that MCA atherosclerotic disease may play an important role in pathophysiology of the CWS in our cases.
The ‘capsular warning syndrome’, a term introduced by Donnan et al., denotes repetitive transient ischemia attacks causing stereotyped unilateral motor, sensory, or sensorimotor deficits that simultaneously affect the face, arm, and leg without cortical symptoms . CWS is usually associated with a high risk of capsular infarction with permanent deficits. A large population-based study of CWS has found that CWS is rare (1.5% of TIA presentations) but has a poor prognosis (7-day stroke risk of 60%) . Our two cases both had subsequent capsular strokes after several episodes of TIAs, which are consistent with previous reports.
The exact pathogenic mechanism of CWS has not been fully understood. Various mechanisms have suggested, including small vessel disease, embolism from the heart, vasospasm, peri-infarct depolarization, and, in rare instances, atherosclerotic disease of the MCA [1, 7–10]. Small perforator artery disease is proposed to be the most common cause of the CWS [1, 10, 11]. Recently, more studies suggested that intracranial atherosclerotic disease plays an important role in the development of small stratiocapsular infarct, especially in Asian . Atherosclerotic plaque of the MCA may occlude the origin of the lenticulostriate arteries resulting in hemodynamic compromise and subsequent infarct. So we suppose that artherosclerotic disease of the MCA may be an important and common pathogenic mechanism of CWS. However, based on the current traditional imaging technique, little is known about the role of atherosclerotic disease in the development of the CWS. Recently, the technique of HR MRI has been developed to depict intracranial artery wall in vivo [4, 5]. HR MR imaging is able to image a small plaque that did not yield stenosis on MRA [13, 14]. In our cases, eccentric small plaques on the ventral wall of proximal MCA were identified on HR MRI . Detection of these small lesions may carry clinical import because a non-stenostic plaque potentially causes ischemic symptoms via occlusion the origin of the lenticulostriate arteries. The fluctuating course of stereotyped symptoms was thought to be the result of hemodynamic compromise due to the origin occlusion. Relying on the HR MRI findings, we suggest that artherosclerotic disease of the MCA is an important pathophysiology of CWS.
Different treatment modalities, including hydration, antiplatelet agents, intravenous thrombolysis and intracranial artery angioplasty, have been proposed in patients with CWS [1, 8, 9, 11, 16]. It remains a challenge to develop therapies that may prevent irreversible damage to occur in patients with CWS. It seems aggressive medical treatments (including dual antithrombotic agents of aspirin and clopidogrel, and statin) might be effective on prevention the recurrent stroke in our cases.
In summary, Our HR MRI data offer an insight into the pathophysiology of CWS which might be caused from atherosclerotic plaque in non-stenotic MCA wall. Early recognition of this clinical presentation and the accompanying stroke mechanism may guide the initial management and prognosis. Further studies using HR MRI in larger sample subjects are expected for highlighting this mechanism and guiding the acute treatment decision for CWS patients.
“Written informed consent was obtained from the patient for publication of this case report and any accompanying images. A copy of the written consent is available for review by the Series Editor of this journal”.
- Donan GA, O’Malley HM M, Quang L, Hurley S, Bladin PF: The capsular warning syndrome. Neurology. 1993, 43 (5): 957-962. 10.1212/WNL.43.5.957.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Donnan GA, M.O’Malley H, Quang L, Hurley S: The capsular warning syndrome: the high risk of early stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis. 1996, 6 (4): 202-207. 10.1159/000108022.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Staff G, Geijer B, Lindgren A, Norrving B: Diffusion-weighted MRI findings in patients with capsular warning syndrome. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2004, 17 (1): 1-8. 10.1159/000073891.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klein IF, Lavallée PC, Touboul PJ, Schouman-Claeys E, Amarenco P: In vivo middle cerebral artery plaque imaging by high-resolution MRI. Neurology. 2006, 67 (2): 327-329. 10.1212/01.wnl.0000225074.47396.71.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li ML, Xu WH, Song L, Feng F, You H, Ni J, Gao S, Cui LY, Jin ZY: Atherosclerosis of middle cerebral artery: evaluation with high-resolution MR imaging at 3T. Atherosclerosis. 2009, 204 (2): 447-452. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.10.019.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paul NL, Simoni M, Chandratheva A, Rothwell PM: Population-based study of capsular warning syndrome and prognosis after early recurrent TIA. Neurology. 2012, 79 (13): 1356-1362. 10.1212/WNL.0b013e31826c1af8.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Saposnik G, Caplan LR: Pontine warning syndrome. Arch Neurol. 2008, 65 (10): 1375-1377.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vivanco-Hidalgo RM, Rodriguez-Campello A, Ois A, Cucurella G, Pont-Sunyer C, Gomis M, Cuadrado-Godia E, Roquer J: Thrombolysis in capsular warning syndrome. Cerbrovasc Dis. 2008, 25 (5): 508-510. 10.1159/000131109.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee J, Albers GW, Marks MP, Lansberg MG: Capsular warning syndrome caused by middle cerebral artery stenosis. J Neurol Sci. 2010, 296 (1–2): 115-120.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Herve D, Gautier-Bertrand M, Labreuche J, Amarenco P: Predictive values of lacunar transient ischemic attacks. Stroke. 2004, 35 (6): 1430-1435. 10.1161/01.STR.0000127365.49448.0f.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fahey CD, Alberts MJ, Bernstein RA: Oral clopidogrel load in aspirin-resistant capsular warning syndrome. Neurocrit Care. 2005, 2 (2): 183-184. 10.1385/NCC:2:2:183.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oh Young B, Ji Hoe H, Jung Yeon K, Jae Hyun P, Kyoon H: Middle cerebral artery stenosis is a major clinical determinant in striatocapsular small, deep infarction. Arch Neurol. 2002, 59 (2): 259-263. 10.1001/archneur.59.2.259.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Niizuma K, Shimizu H, Takada S, Tominaga T: Middle cerebral artery plaque imaging using 3-Tesla high-resolution MRI. J Clin Neurosci. 2008, 15 (10): 1137-1141. 10.1016/j.jocn.2007.09.024.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu WH, Li ML, Gao S, Ni J, Zhou LX, Yao M, Peng B, Feng F, Jin ZY, Cui LY: In vivo high-resolution MR imaging of symptomatic and asymptomatic middle cerebral artery atherosclerotic stenosis. Atherosclerosis. 2010, 212 (2): 507-511. 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2010.06.035.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu WH, Li ML, Gao S, Ni J, Zhou LX, Yao M, Peng B, Feng F, Jin ZY, Cui LY: Plaque distribution of stenotic middle cerebral artery and its clinical relevance. Stroke. 2011, 42 (10): 2957-2959. 10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.618132.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lalive PH, Mayor I, Sztajzel RP: The role of blood pressure in lacunar strokes preceded by TIAs. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2003, 16 (1): 88-90. 10.1159/000070121.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2377/14/16/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.