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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Alcohol drinking and risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan

Variable n (%) or mean (SD) P-value
  Cases (N = 214) Controls (N = 327)  
Sex (%)    0.86
   Male 73 (34.1) 114 (34.9)  
   Female 141 (65.9) 213 (65.1)  
Age (y) 67.9 (8.5) 66.4 (8.6) 0.04
Region of residence (%)    0.43
   Fukuoka 81 (37.9) 135 (41.3)  
   Kinki 133 (62.2) 192 (58.7)  
Pack-years of smoking (%)    0.007
   None 164 (76.6) 211 (64.5)  
   0.1-29.9 28 (13.1) 55 (16.8)  
   ≥ 30.0 22 (10.3) 61 (18.7)  
Education (%)    0.74
   < 10 y 39 (18.2) 64 (19.6)  
   10-12 y 110 (51.4) 157 (48.0)  
   ≥ 13 y 65 (30.4) 106 (32.4)  
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.4 (3.3) 23.0 (3.3) 0.04
Current drinking (%)    0.71
   No 115 (53.7) 181 (55.4)  
   Yes 99 (46.3) 146 (44.7)  
Alcohol flushing status (%)    0.39
   Never flushing 107 (50.0) 166 (50.8)  
   Former flushing 4 (1.9) 2 (0.6)  
   Current flushing 103 (48.1) 159 (48.6)  
Presence of medication history (%)    
   Hypertension 50 (23.4) 123 (37.6) 0.0005
   Hypercholesterolemia 20 (9.4) 52 (15.9) 0.028
   Diabetes mellitus 9 (4.2) 29 (8.9) 0.038
Daily intakea    
   Total energy (kJ) 8418.6 (2546.8) 8388.6 (3145.4) 0.90
   Caffeine (mg/4184 KJ) 153.0 (112.2) 194.6 (139.2) 0.0001
   Cholesterol (mg/4184 KJ) 157.8 (60.0) 147.7 (60.9) 0.06
   Vitamin E (mg/4184 KJ) 4.2 (1.2) 4.2 (1.2) 0.88
   Vitamin B-6 (mg/4184 KJ) 0.6 (0.2) 0.6 (0.2) 0.94
   Iron (mg/4184 KJ) 3.8 (0.9) 3.8 (1.0) 0.47
   Dietary glycemic index 64.9 (4.7) 65.4 (5.2) 0.27
  1. a Nutrient intake was adjusted for total energy intake using the density method, except for dietary glycemic index.