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Table 4 ORs for Parkinson's disease in relation to alcohol drinking during "peak" period by flushing status

From: Alcohol drinking and risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan

Alcohol drinking during "peak" period a n (%)   Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted ORb (95% CI) Adjusted ORc (95% CI)
Never flushing Cases (N = 107) Controls (N = 166)    
Frequency      
   Non-drinker 79 (73.8) 127 (76.5) 1.00 1.00 1.00
   < 6 days per week 23 (21.5) 24 (14.5) 1.54 (0.81-2.92) 1.65 (0.80-3.44) 1.32 (0.60-2.93)
   ≥ 6 days per week 5 (4.7) 15 (9.0) 0.54 (0.17-1.44) 0.78 (0.22-2.54) 0.61 (0.17-1.99)
   P for trend    0.82 0.67 0.77
Amount per day (ethanol, g)      
   Non-drinker 79 (73.8) 127 (76.5) 1.00 1.00 1.00
   0.1-65.9 17 (15.9) 21 (12.7) 1.30 (0.64-2.61) 1.33 (0.61-2.87) 1.07 (0.47-2.43)
   ≥ 66.0 11 (10.3) 18 (10.8) 0.98 (0.43-2.16) 1.54 (0.54-4.39) 1.11 (0.37-3.31)
   P for trend    0.80 0.32 0.82
Amount per week (ethanol, g)      
   Non-drinker 79 (73.8) 127 (76.5) 1.00 1.00 1.00
   0.1-219.3 19 (17.8) 23 (13.9) 1.33 (0.68-2.59) 1.46 (0.69-3.09) 1.18 (0.53-2.63)
   ≥ 219.4 9 (8.4) 16 (9.6) 0.90 (0.37-2.11) 1.24 (0.42-3.60) 0.89 (0.29-2.66)
   P for trend    0.85 0.44 0.99
Former/current flushing Cases (N = 107) Controls (N = 161)    
Frequency      
   Non-drinker 36 (33.6) 54 (33.5) 1.00 1.00 1.00
   < 6 days per week 40 (37.4) 53 (32.9) 1.13 (0.63-2.04) 1.12 (0.56-2.26) 0.97 (0.47-2.02)
   ≥ 6 days per week 31 (29.0) 54 (33.5) 0.86 (0.47-1.59) 0.98 (0.43-2.26) 0.84 (0.35-2.00)
   P for trend    0.64 0.96 0.68
Amount per day (ethanol, g)      
   Non-drinker 36 (33.6) 54 (33.5) 1.00 1.00 1.00
   0.1-65.9 29 (27.1) 52 (32.3) 0.84 (0.45-1.55) 0.97 (0.48-1.97) 0.84 (0.40-1.77)
   ≥ 66.0 42 (39.3) 55 (34.2) 1.15 (0.64-2.06) 1.38 (0.61-3.17) 1.16 (0.49-2.74)
   P for trend    0.63 0.44 0.71
Amount per week (ethanol, g)      
   Non-drinker 36 (33.6) 54 (33.5) 1.00 1.00 1.00
   0.1-219.3 22 (20.6) 50 (31.1) 0.66 (0.34-1.26) 0.79 (0.38-1.64) 0.66 (0.30-1.43)
   ≥ 219.4 49 (45.8) 57 (35.4) 1.29 (0.73-2.29) 2.06 (0.88-4.96) 1.82 (0.75-4.53)
   P for trend    0.33 0.13 0.23
  1. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
  2. a Defined as period during which the subject's alcohol consumption was the highest.
  3. b Adjusted for sex, age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, years of education, body mass index, and presence of medication history for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes.
  4. c Adjusted for sex, age, region of residence, pack-years of smoking, years of education, body mass index, presence of medication history for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes, dietary intake of caffeine, cholesterol, vitamin E, vitamin B6, iron, and dietary glycemic index.