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Table 1 Prevalence of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations by socio-demographic characteristicsand comorbidity

From: Prevalence and pattern of cognitive impairment in rural and urban populations from Northern Portugal

Characteristics Rural Urban PR 95% CI
  N No cases Prev (%) 95% CI N No cases Prev (%) CI 95%   
All 713 120 16.8 14.3-19.8 433 52 12.0 9.3-15.4 1.40 1.04-1.90
   Gender
Men 291 43 14.8 11.2-19.3 171 16 9.4 5.8-14.7 1.58 0.92-2.72
Women 422 77 18.2 14.9-22.2 262 36 13.7 10.1-18.4 1.33 0.92-1.91
   Age (years)
55-64 294 30 10.2 7.2-14.2 192 18 9.4 6.0-14.3 1.09 0.63-1.90
65-74 301 52 17.3 13.4-22.0 194 27 13.9 9.8-19.5 1.24 0.81-1.91
75-79 118 38 32.2 24.5-41.1 47 7 14.9 7.4-27.7 2.16 1.04-4.50
   Education
Illiterate 189 50 26.5 20.7-33.2 31 4 12.9 5.1-28.9 2.05 0.80-5.28
1-3 226 39 17.3 12.9-22.7 103 21 20.4 13.7-29.2 0.85 0.53-1.36
4 273 28 10.3 7.2-14.4 206 20 9.7 6.4-14.5 1.06 0.61-1.82
5 or more 21 3 12.0 4.2-30.0 75 7 7.5 3.7-14.7 1.59 0.44-5.73
   Residential status
Living with the family 652 104 16.0 13.3-19.0 388 45 11.6 8.8-15.2 1.38 0.99-1.91
Living alone 57 15 26.3 16.7-38.9 42 6 14.3 6.7-27.8 1.84 0.78-4.35
Institutional residence 4 1 25.0 4.5-69.9 3 1 33.3 6.2-79.2 0.75 0.07-7.73
   Occupation (present/late)
Farming 402 76 18.9 15.4-23.0 19 6 31.6 15.4-54.0 0.60 0.30-1.20
Production 86 12 14.0 8.2-22.8 153 20 13.1 8.6-19.3 1.07 0.55-2.08
Personal care/serving 72 13 18.1 10.9-28.5 117 14 12.0 7.3-19.1 1.51 0.75-3.03
Sales/White collar 50 4 8.0 3.2-18.8 112 7 6.3 3.1-12.3 1.28 0.39-4.18
Housewife 103 15 14.6 9.0-22.6 32 5 15.6 6.9-31.8 0.93 0.37-2.37
   Retired worker
Yes 499 100 20.0 16.8-23.8 282 37 13.1 9.7-17.6 1.53 1.08-2.16
No 214 20 9.3 6.1-14.0 151 15 9.9 6.1-15.7 0.94 0.50-1.78
   Depending on others
Yes 53 26 49.1 36.1-62.1 18 4 22.2 9.0-45.2 2.21 0.89-5.47
No 660 94 14.2 11.8-17.1 415 48 11.6 8.8-15.0 1.23 0.89-1.71
Physical/Mental comorbidity           
   Depression
Yes 78 25 32.1 22.8-43.0 50 13 25.0 15.2-38.2 1.28 0.72-2.27
No 635 95 15.0 12.4-17.9 381 39 10.2 7.6-13.7 1.46 1.03-2.08
   Cerebrovascular disease
Yes 63 27 42.9 31.4-55.1 26 10 38.5 22.4-57.5 1.11 0.63-1.96
No 650 93 14.3 11.8-17.2 407 42 10.3 7.7-13.7 1.39 0.98-1.95
   Other disease
Yes 124 47 37.9 29.8-46.7 59 21 35.6 24.6-48.3 1.07 0.71-1.61
No 589 73 12.4 10.0-15.3 374 31 8.3 5.9-11.5 1.50 1.00-2.23
   No vascular risk factors
0 383 50 13.1 10.0-16.8 237 19 8.0 5.2-12.2 1.63 0.99-2.69
1 229 45 19.7 15.0-25.3 134 26 19.4 13.6-26.9 1.01 0.66-1.56
2 or more 101 25 24.8 17.4-34.0 62 7 11.3 5.6-21.5 2.19 1.01-4.76
  1. Prev: prevalence; PR: Rural/Urban prevalence ratio; at least one of: traumatic brain injury, alcohol abuse, psychiatric or other neurological disease; Vascular risk factors include high blood pressure, cardiac disease, diabetes and dyslipidemia