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Table 1 Neuropsychological (NP) tests battery and Z-scores (mean ± SD) in the HIV+ group

From: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in sub-Saharan Africa: a pilot study in Cameroon

Ability domain NP tests (reference) HIV+ (N = 44) P< d
Verbal Letter Fluency [34, 35] -0.07 ± 1.02 0.72 .07
  Animal Fluency [35] -0.17 ± 0.82 0.37 .18
  Action Fluency [36, 37] -0.15 ± 0.70 0.42 .17
Executive Functions Category Test [38] -0.53 ± 0.95 0.01 .52
  WCST-64 Total Errors [39] -0.88 ± 1.40 0.002 .68
  Color Trails II [40] -0.34 ± 1.07 0.34 .31
Speed of information processing TMT-A (U.S. War Department, 1944) -0.04 ± 0.84 0.83 .04
  WAIS-III Digit symbol [41] -0.33 ± 0.86 0.09 .34
  WAIS-III Symbol Search [41] -0.33 ± 0.83 0.10 .34
  Stroop Color [42] -0.30 ± 0.97 0.15 .29
  Color Trails I [40] -0.17 ± 0.95 0.41 .17
Memory Learning BVMT-R Learning [43] -0.33 ± 1.14 0.15 .29
  HVLT-R Learning [44] -0.08 ± 1.20 0.71 .07
Memory Recall BVMT-R Delay Recall [43] -0.42 ± 1.30 0.09 .35
  HVLT-R Delay Recall [44] -0.18 ± 1.05 0.41 .17
Working Memory PASAT 50 [45, 46] -0.49 ± 0.96 0.02 .48
  WMS-III Spatial Span [47] -0.41 ± 0.89 0.04 .41
Motor function Grooved Pegboard DH [48] -0.18 ± 1.17 0.42 .16
  Grooved Pegboard NDH [48] -0.26 ± 1.23 0.28 .22
Mean Z-score   -0.30 ± 0.64 0.05 .41
  1. Raw scores were transformed into z-scores using the control's mean and standard deviation. P represents statistical significance when comparing mean z-scores or HIV+ and mean z-scores of HIV- group. Abbreviations: SD: standard deviation; WCST: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; TMT-A: Trail Making Test part A; WAIS: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; BVMT-R: Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised; HVLT-R: Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised; PASAT: Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test; WMS: Wechsler Memory Scale; DH: dominant hand; NDH: non-dominant hand.