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Table 2 Clinical studies of the fixed combination of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) + Paracetamol (PARA) and caffeine (CAF) (published 1988-2006)

From: Combined analgesics in (headache) pain therapy: shotgun approach or precise multi-target therapeutics?

Study Study design Indication Results-efficacy endpoint
Bosse & Kühner 1988[57] randomized double-blind, multicenter study Headache of different genesis ASA + PARA + CAF* > 250 mg ASA + 250 mg PARA ASA + PARA + CAF* > 500 mg ASA
Migliardi et al. 1994[48] four identical, randomized double-blind, two-period crossover, multicenter studies Tension-type headache ASA + PARA + CAF** > 1000 mg PARA ASA + PARA + CAF** > Placebo
Lipton et al. 1998[58] three randomized, double-blind, studies. Migraine ASA + PARA + CAF** > Placebo
Diener et al. 2005[59] randomized double-blind, multicenter study Migraine and tension-type headache ASA + PARA + CAF*** > 500 mg ASA + 400 mg PARA ASA + PARA + CAF*** > 1000 mgASA ASA + PARA + CAF*** > 1000 mg PARA ASA + PARA + CAF*** > 100 mg CAF ASA + PARA + CAF*** > Placebo
Goldstein et al. 2005[60] randomized double-blind, multicenter study Migraine ASA + PARA + CAF** > 50 mg Sumatriptan ASA + PARA + CAF** > Placebo
Goldstein et al. 2006[61] randomized double-blind, multicenter study Migraine ASA + PARA + CAF** > 400 mg Ibuprofen ASA + PARA + CAF** > Placebo
  1. *: 250 mg ASA + 200 mg PARA + 50 mg CAF; **: 500 mg ASA + 500 mg PARA + 130 mg CAF; ***: 500 mg ASA + 400 mg PARA + 100 mg CAF.