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Table 2 Positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity (Sens), specificity (Spec), and effectivity (Effect) of symptoms and symptom combinations in diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT)

From: Cerebral vein thrombosis: clinical manifestation and diagnosis

Parameter CVT vs. no CVT PPV NPV Sens Spec Effect
Headaches (any form) 27/39 vs. 145/200 0.17 0.82 0.69 0.28 0.34
   - plus seizure (focal or generalized) 4/39 vs. 3/200 0.57 0.85 0.10 0.99 0.84
   - plus focal neurological deficit 12/39 vs. 39/200 0.23 0.86 0.31 0.81 0.72
   - plus previous history of DVT or PE 5/39 vs. 24/200 0.33 0.84 0.07 0.97 0.82
   - plus papilledema 4/39 vs. 3/200 0.57 0.85 0.10 0.99 0.84
   - plus altered consciousness 0/39 vs. 1/200 0.00 0.84 0.00 0.99 0.83
   - plus oral contraceptives* 6/27 vs. 26/143 0.19 0.85 0.22 0.82 0.72
   - plus increased D-dimers§ 14/29 vs. 7/69 0.67 0.81 0.48 0.89 0.78
Seizures (focal or generalized) 11/39 vs. 19/200 0.37 0.86 0.28 0.91 0.80
   - plus focal neurological deficit 2/39 vs. 3/200 0.40 0.84 0.05 0.99 0.83
   - plus previous history of DVT or PE 1/39 vs. 1/200 0.50 0.84 0.03 0.99 0.84
   - plus papilledema 0/39 vs. 0/200 - - - - -
   - plus altered consciousness 0/39 vs. 1/200 0.00 0.84 0.00 0.99 0.83
   - plus oral contraceptives* 1/27 vs. 1/143 0.03 0.96 0.17 0.80 0.78
   - plus increased D-dimers§ 8/29 vs. 1/69 0.89 0.76 0.28 0.98 0.78
Focal neurological deficit 17/39 vs. 68/200 0.20 0.86 0.44 0.66 0.62
   - plus previous history of DVT or PE 1/39 vs. 6/200 0.14 0.83 0.02 0.97 0.81
   - plus papilledema 2/39 vs. 0/200 1.00 0.84 0.05 1.00 0.85
   - plus altered consciousness 0/39 vs. 2/200 0.00 0.84 0.00 0.99 0.83
   - plus oral contraceptives* 3/27 vs. 5/143 0.38 0.85 0.11 0.97 0.83
   - plus increased D-dimers§ 11/29 vs. 1/69 0.92 0.79 0.38 0.98 0.81
Altered consciousness 0/39 vs. 10/200 0.00 0.83 0.00 0.95 0.79
   - plus previous history of DVT or PE 0/39 vs. 1/200 0.00 0.84 0.00 0.99 0.83
   - plus papilledema 0/39 vs. 0/200 - - - - -
   - plus oral contraceptives* 0/39 vs. 1/200 0.00 0.84 0.00 0.99 0.83
   - plus increased D-dimers§ 0/29 vs. 1/69 0.00 0.70 0.00 0.99 0.69
Papilledema 4/39 vs. 7/200 0.36 0.85 0.10 0.97 0.82
   - plus previous history of DVT or PE 1/39 vs. 1/200 0.50 0.84 0.03 0.99 0.84
   - plus oral contraceptives* 1/39 vs. 1/200 0.50 0.84 0.03 0.99 0.84
   - plus increased D-dimers§ 3/29 vs. 1/69 0.75 0.72 0.10 0.99 0.72
Increased D-dimers§ 22/29 vs. 6/69 0.79 0.90 0.76 0.91 0.87
  1. DVT: deep vein thrombosis of the legs
  2. PE: pulmonary embolism
  3. *limited to females
  4. §limited to patients with D-dimer measurements