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Table 1 Evidences of impaired neuroregeneration in AD and PD

From: Neuroregeneration in neurodegenerative disorders

Neurorestorative field   Evidence of impairment Evidence of compensatory mechanism
Neurogenesis AD Decreased number of NPCs and altered division rates [21] Increased neuroproliferation markers [16]
  PD Reduced number of NPCs [28] Increased number of PSA-NCAM + cells [29]
Neuroprotection AD Low BDNF mRNA and protein levels [37] Upregulation of glial truncated TrkB [40]
   Controversed data on NGF levels [40, 48, 49] Possibly upregulation of NGF with ageing and dementia [61, 62, 87]
    Aβ stimulates NGF astrocytic secrection [51]
    High GDNF levels in cerebrospinal fluid
  PD Low BDNF mRNA and protein levels [37] BDNF pretreatment protects dopaminergic neurons [34]
   Low GDNF protein levels [66]  
Neuroplasticity AD Synaptic loss [77] "Dynamic synaptic reorganization" [82].
   LTP impairment by Abeta oligomers and inflammatory environment [85] NCAM increase in dentate gyrus [83]
  PD Loss of dendritic spines following loss of dopaminergic input [90]  
   Impaired synaptic plasticity in several models of PD [8789]