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Table 2 Comparison of cognitive functions between exercise and control groups

From: Effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial

  Mean difference (95% CI) between before and after 6 months Mean difference (95% CI) between before and after 12 months Time Group Group × time
  Exercise (n=25) Control (n=25) Exercise (n=25) Control (n=25) df F value P value df F value P value df F value P value
MMSE 0.32 (−0.96−1.60) −1.37 (−2.66−−0.07) −0.47 (−1.75−0.81) −0.44 (−1.74−0.86) 92.1 1.17 0.32 d 48.0 2.2 0.14 g 92.1 3.4 0.04
WMS-LM I 3.83 (1.40−6.25) 0.60 (−1.87−3.06) 4.62 (2.19−7.05) 5.00 (2.53−7.46) 90.9 23.0 <0.01 a, b, e, f 47.8 0.9 0.34 g 90.9 3.9 0.03
WMS-LM II 3.79 (1.49−6.10) 2.09 (−0.25−4.43) 5.13 (2.82−7.43) 6.20 (3.86−8.54) 91.1 35.4 <0.01 a, b, e, f 48.1 1.1 0.30 91.1 2.1 0.13
DSC −0.19 (−4.20−3.81) 3.27 (−0.80−7.34) 3.64 (−0.36−7.64) 3.73 (−0.34−7.80) 90.4 5.0 <0.01 48.0 0.2 0.65 90.4 1.4 0.25
LVFT 2.87 (0.57−5.17) −0.97 (−3.31−1.37) 2.99 (0.69−5.30) 1.61 (−0.73−3.95) 91.2 5.9 <0.01 48.3 0.3 0.59 91.2 4.1 0.02
CVFT 1.54 (−1.27−4.35) −1.81 (−4.67−1.04) 1.33 (−1.48−4.14) −1.61 (−4.46−1.25) 91.2 0.02 0.98 48.5 3.1 0.08 91.2 2.5 0.09
SCWT-I −3.30 (−7.56−0.96) −0.98 (−5.30−3.34) −3.68 (−7.94−0.58) −3.20 (−7.52−1.12) 91.5 3.9 0.02 47.7 0.73 0.40 91.5 0.5 0.62
SCWT-III −4.70 (−12.72−3.33) 0.15 (−8.00−8.30) −2.61 (−10.64−5.42) −4.57 (−12.72−3.58) 92.0 1.2 0.31 48.8 0.009 0.92 92.0 1.1 0.34
  1. MMSE; mini-mental state examination, WMS-LM; Logical Memory subtest of the Wechsler memory scale-revised, DSC; digit-symbol cording, LVFT; letter verbal fluency test, CVFT; category verbal fluency test, SCWT; Stroop Color and Word Test, TMIG; Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology index.
  2. a P < .05; significant differences between before and after 6 months in the exercise group, b P < .05; significant differences between before and after 12 months in the exercise group, c P < .05; significant differences between after 6 months and 12 months in the exercise group, d P < .05; significant differences between before and after 6 months in the control group, e P < .05; significant differences between before and after 12 months in the control group, f P < .05; significant differences between after 6 months and 12 months in the control group, g P < .05; significant differences between the exercise and control groups at after 6 months, h P < .01; significant differences between the exercise and control groups at after 12 months.