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Table 3 Relationship of clinical characteristics with biomarkers and neuropsychiatric performances in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

From: Clinical significance of serological biomarkers and neuropsychological performances in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

  Seizure frequency Duration of epilepsy
  Group 1 (n = 22) Group 2 (n = 12) σ coefficient
Duration of epilepsy (years) 16.7 ± 8.5 20.3 ± 13.6 -
Number of antiepileptic drugs used Biomarkers 1.6 ± 0.6 2.52 ± 0.7 -0.029
   Heat shock protein 70 (µg/ml) 123.4 ± 34.7 324.7 ± 97.4** 0.413†
   Non-specific enolase (ng/ml) 8.4 ± 1.2 11.3 ± 1.13** 0.062
   S100 ß protein (pg/ml) 79.04 ± 12.5 148.95 ± 43.6** 0.132
   Plasma nuclear DNA (ng/ml) 29.22 ± 2.2 30.33 ± 2.2 0.18
   Plasma mitochondrial DNA (ng/ml) 21.04 ± 1.0 21.13 ± 1.1 0.044
Verbal Memory CVLT-MS (9)    
   30 sec free recall 7.86 ± 1.5 7.27 ± 2.8 0.041
   10-min free recall 7.23 ± 1.9 7.09 ± 2.9 0.045
   10-min recognition 7.50 ± 2.0 7.64 ± 1.6 0.153
Modified Rey-Osterrieth recall (17) 16.77 ± 0.8 16.82 ± 0.6 0.3020
Cube copy (2) 0.91 ± 0.9 1.18 ± 0.9 -0.068
Pentagon copy (1) 0.82 ± 0.4 0.82 ± 0.4 -0.469†
Semantic fluency animal (1 minute) 14.09 ± 4.5 17.73 ± 6.6 -0.342
Boston naming test (16) 14.36 ± 2.3 14.18 ± 2.4 -0.175
Comprehension (4) 3.45 ± 0.9 3.45 ± 1.0 -0.631†
Abstract thinking (3) 1.95 ± 1.2 2.27 ± 1.2 -0.347
Problem solving (3) 2.00 ± 1.0 2.00 ± 1.18 0.107
Stroop interference correct (1 minute) 39.82 ± 16.5 42.64 ± 12.4 -0.374
Design fluency 7.68 ± 5.7 9.00 ± 5.8 -0.350
Trail Making test time (< 120 seconds) 51.68 ± 38.8 45.18 ± 32.1 0.548†
Digit forward 7.27 ± 1.5 7.73 ± 1.1 -0.346
  1. Values expressed as mean ± SD or with correlation coefficient (σ coefficient)
  2. Neuropsychological tests listed above represent domains that were different from the control group; number in parenthesis following task name = maximal scores
  3. CVLT-MS California Verbal Learning Test-Mental Status
  4. Group 1 = seizure frequency ≤ 2 times per month; Group 2 = seizure frequency > 2 times per month
  5. ** p < 0.01 compared with Group 1 and Group 2, †p < 0.01 in correlation analysis