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Table 1 Patients with LKS and/or ESES - earliest available study

From: The frequency modulated auditory evoked response (FMAER), a technical advance for study of childhood language disorders: cortical source localization and selected case studies

Case No. FMAER* ESES Generalized discharges Focal discharges Source in STG
      Left Right
1 abnml B 50% Yes Yes: T7, T8, P7, P8 yes yes
2 abnml B 90% Yes Yes: T7, T8 yes yes
3 abnml B 0% Yes Yes: P7, P8 yes yes
4 abnml B 0% No Yes: T7, P7, T8, P8 yes yes
5 abnml B 40% No Yes: CP5, C3 yes n/d
6 abnml B 0% Yes Yes: CP5, C3 yes n/d
7 abnml B 60% Yes Yes: P7, O1, P8 yes yes
8 abnml B 43% Yes Yes: CP5, C3, P3, P4 yes yes
9 abnml B 80% Yes Yes: P7, P8 yes yes
10 abnml L 98% Yes Yes: P7, O1, P8, O2 yes no
11 abnml L 90% Yes Yes: T7, T8 yes no
12 abnml B 89% Yes Yes: CP5, P7 P8 yes yes
13 abnml B 35% No Yes: CP5, C3, P3 yes n/d
14 normal 90% Yes Yes: P4, P8 no no
15** normal 75% Yes Yes: CP5, FC5, T7, F7 (no) n/d
16 normal 0% Yes Yes: FC5, C3 ((no)) n/d
17 normal 59% Yes Yes: O2, O1, FC2, C4 no no
18 normal 58% Yes Yes: CZ, PZ, C4, P4 no no
  1. Legends:
  2. * = “abnml” indicates abnormal (absent or severely distorted) FMAER; B = bilaterally; L = left side only (right side only cases not found).
  3. ** = Case 15 FMAER became abnormal 1 month after initial study (see Figures 13 and 14).
  4. = FMAER stimulation reported to mildly activate left temporal discharges.
  5. ESES = Percent of seconds of Stage 2 sleep containing discharges. Not all reach typical ‘80% definition’ for ESES but value shown reported as ‘clinically significant’.
  6. Source in STG = Primary source for source analysis of focal discharges found in superior temporal gyrus and/or Wernicke’s area - ‘yes’ or ‘no’.
  7. ‘n/d’ = Not done, insufficient discharges present for source analysis.
  8. (no) = primary source found in mid-inferior left temporal region but a prominent secondary source noted in left superior temporal gyrus.
  9. ((no)) = Source analysis of FC5 spikes shows primary source in frontal lobe near Broca’s area, distant from the posterior temporal region.