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Table 1 Characteristics of the acute ischemic stroke or TIA cohort by heart dysfunction or normal heart function

From: Heart dysfunction in patients with acute ischemic stroke or TIA does not predict all-cause mortality at long-term follow-up

  Total Heart dysfunction Normal heart function P-values
  n = 132 n = 77 n = 55  
Age (mean ± SD) 73.3 ± 9.2 74.4 ± 8.0 71.7 ± 10.6 0.100
Male (%) 52.3 51.9 52.7 0.930
Stroke (%) 85.6 93.5** 74.5 0.002
TIA (%) 14.4 6.5** 25.5 0.002
NIHSS scores 3.4 ± 4.7 3.9 ± 5.1 2.9 ± 4.1 0.297
mRS at 3-months follow-up     
  ≤2 (%) 84.7 78.9* 92.7 0.030
  >2 (%) 15.3 21.1* 7.3 0.030
All-cause mortality (%) 29.5 35.1 21.8 0.100
Clinical examinations     
  Systolic BP (mmHg) (mean ± SD) 169.0 ± 29.5 170.0 ± 32.3 167.8 ± 25.4 0.680
  Diastolic BP (mmHg) (mean ± SD) 94.2 ± 17.6 95.0 ± 19.6 93.1 ± 14.5 0.548
  Heart rate (beats/min) (mean ± SD) 77.2 ± 18.0 77.8 ± 18.3 76.4 ± 17.8 0.660
Laboratory variables     
  S-Creatinine (μmol/L) (mean ± SD) 84.1 ± 38.2 86.3 ± 43.8 81.0 ± 28.5 0.444
  CRP (mg/L) (mean ± SD) 16.2 ± 32.4 16.7 ± 34.3 15.6 ± 29.7 0.859
  cTNT (μg/L) (mean ± SD) 0.06 ± 0.29 0.08 ± 0.37 0.03 ± 0.04 0.417
Echocardiogram parameters     
  LVEF (%) 57.6 ± 9.8 56.0 ± 12.0* 60.3 ± 3.2 0.017
  LVDD (cm) (mean ± SD) 4.9 ± 0.8 4.9 ± 0.9 4.7 ± 0.7 0.438
  Left atrium (cm2) (mean ± SD) 19.8 ± 4.4 20.7 ± 4.6** 18.3 ± 3.6 0.004
  Right atrium (cm2) (mean ± SD) 16.2 ± 3.9 16.5 ± 4.2 15.7 ± 3.4 0.309
  PA mmHg (mean ± SD) 31.0 ± 8.4 30.8 ± 6.9 31.4 ± 11.4 0.795
  Stroke volume (mean ± SD) 72.7 ± 19.7 68.8 ± 18.5* 91.0 ± 15.7 0.037
  E/A ratio (mean ± SD) 0.9 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.4 0.9 ± 0.3 0.988
  S/D ratio (mean ± SD) 1.4 ± 0.5 1.4 ± 0.5 1.1 ± 0.1 0.324
Cardiovascular risk factors     
  Smoking (%) 14.4 19.6 8.3 0.102
  Hypertension (%) 59.1 59.7 58.2 0.858
  Diabetes mellitus (%) 18.9 16.9 21.8 0.476
  Hypercholesterolemia (%)1 13.9 15.5 11.8 0.558
Cardiovascular diseases     
  Myocardial infarction (%) 15.9 19.5 10.9 0.184
  Angina pectoris (%) 15.9 18.2 12.7 0.398
Comorbidity     
  Pulmonary embolism (%) 1.5 0.0 3.6 0.092
  Previous ischaemic stroke (%) 17.4 19.5 14.5 0.461
  eGFR <60 (mL/min) (%)2 32.3 38.9 23.1 0.063
  Anaemia (%)3 11.7 13.2 9.6 0.541
Pre-stroke medications     
  ACE inhibitors (%) 19.7 22.1 16.4 0.416
  Angiotensin receptor blockers (%) 18.2 14.3 23.6 0.170
  Beta-blockers (%) 36.4 41.6 29.1 0.142
  Diuretics (%) 26.5 28.6 23.6 0.527
  Aspirin (%) 42.4 44.2 40.0 0.634
  Warfarin (%) 0.8 1.3 0.0 0.396
  Clopidogrel (%) 1.5 1.3 1.8 0.810
  Aspirin + Dipyridamol (%) 1.5 1.3 1.8 0.810
  Dipyridamol (%) 7.6 6.5 9.1 0.578
Post-stroke medications     
  ACE inhibitors (%) 30.5 34.2 25.5 0.283
  Angiotensin receptor blockers (%) 23.7 21.1 27.3 0.408
  Beta-blockers (%) 44.3 51.3 34.5 0.056
  Diuretics (%) 32.8 34.2 30.9 0.691
  Aspirin (%) 82.4 81.6 83.6 0.760
  Warfarin (%) 8.4 7.9 9.1 0.808
  Clopidogrel (%) 3.1 5.3 0.0 0.084
  Aspirin + Dipyridamol (%) 2.3 3.9 0.0 0.136
  Dipyridamol (%) 46.6 39.5 56.4 0.056
  1. NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; mRS, modified rankin scale; BP, blood pressure; S-Creatinine, serum creatinine; CRP, C-reactive protein; cTNT, cardiac troponin T; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction; LVDD, left ventricular diastolic dimension; PA, pulmonary artery pressure; E/A ration, passive filling of the ventricle (early [E] wave) and active filling with atrial systole (atrial [A] wave); S/D ratio, systolic and diastolic component of pulmonary vein; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; ACE inhibitors; angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors.
  2. 1Hypercholesterolemia defined as total serum-cholesterol >6 mmol/L.
  3. 2eGFR estimated by Cockcroft-Gault formula.
  4. 3Anaemia according to WHO definition, as hemoglobin <130 g/L (males) and hemoglobin <120 g/L (females).
  5. *, P < 0.05 for comparison of heart dysfunction with normal heart function.
  6. **, P < 0.01 for comparison between heart dysfunction with normal heart function.