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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of study cohort grouped by clinical disease status

From: Jugular venous reflux and brain parenchyma volumes in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

Variable Controls MCI AD Significance p value
Number of subjects, n (%) 18 (26.9) 33 (49.3) 16 (23.9) n.a.
Female gender, n (%) 4 (22.2) 13 (39.4) 8 (50.0) 0.233*
Age in years, mean (SD) 81.5 (3.4) 81.4 (6.1) 81.9 (5.8) 0.946
Years of education, mean (SD) 13.5 (1.9) 11.3 (4.1) 10.0 (3.8) 0.018
JVR positive, n (%) 13 (72.2) 24 (72.7) 7 (43.8) 0.106*
MMSE, mean (SD) 28.0 (1.5) 26.2 (1.9) 20.3 (2.8) <0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 12 (66.7) 17 (51.5) 11 (68.8) 0.401*
Diabetes, n (%) 3 (16.7) 6 (18.2) 3 (18.8) 0.986*
Hyperlipidemia, n (%) 3 (16.7) 3 (0.9) 7 (43.8) 0.015*
Smoking, n (%) 1 (0.6) 1 (3.0) 0 (0.0) 0.637*
Normalized WB volume, mean (SD) 1342.1 (50.6) 1308.9 (62.1) 1291.6 (51.3) 0.034
Normalized GM volume, mean (SD) 728.1 (35.7) 715.3 (44.1) 698.0 (37.5) 0.104
Normalized WM volume, mean (SD) 614.1 (27.7) 593.6 (34.3) 593.6 (29.7) 0.072
CSF volume 383.4 (47.0) 358.1 (60.1) 372.7 (72.9) 0.346
  1. MCI Mild cognitive impairment, AD Alzheimer’s disease, JVR Jugular venous reflux, MMSE Mini-mental state examination, WB Whole brain, GM Gray matter, WM White matter, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid.
  2. All volumes are expressed in milliliters.
  3. ANOVA One-way analysis of variance, n.a. Not applicable, SD Standard deviation, n Number, % - Percentage.
  4. p value determined by one-way ANOVA unless otherwise stated.
  5. *p value determined using chi square test.