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Table 3 MRI variables classified according to JVR status (i.e. positive or negative) for each disease group

From: Jugular venous reflux and brain parenchyma volumes in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

  JVR negative JVR positive Significance p value Cohen’s d
Controls, n (%) 5 (21.7) 13 (29.5) n.a. n.a.
Normalized WB volume, mean (SD) 1341.7 (44.6) 1342.3 (54.5) 0.924 0.013
Normalized GM volume, mean (SD) 719.7 (42.2) 731.3 (34.2) 0.633 0.326
Normalized WM volume, mean (SD) 622.0 (23.7) 611.0 (29.4) 0.443 0.396
CSF volume 364.1 (33.5) 390.7 (50.4) 0.336 0.566
MCI, n (%) 9 (39.1) 24 (54.5) n.a. n.a.
Normalized WB volume, mean (SD) 1274.9 (68.3) 1321.7 (55.8) 0.079 0.754
Normalized GM volume, mean (SD) 686.8 (49.3) 726.0 (37.7) 0.045 0.890
Normalized WM volume, mean (SD) 588.1 (32.8) 595.7 (35.3) 0.824 0.221
CSF volume 377.3 (54.2) 350.8 (61.7) 0.284 0.440
AD, n (%) 9 (39.1) 7 (15.9) n.a. n.a.
Normalized WB volume, mean (SD) 1267.8 (35.2) 1322.2 (54.7) 0.054 1.060
Normalized GM volume, mean (SD) 683.4 (26.6) 716.8 (42.9) 0.142 0.889
Normalized WM volume, mean (SD) 584.4 (30.4) 605.5 (26.2) 0.252 0.709
CSF volume 392.9 (75.1) 346.8 (66.2) 0.252 0.632
MCI and AD combined, n (%) 18 (78.3) 31 (70.5) n.a. n.a.
Normalized WB volume, mean (SD) 1271.4 (52.8) 1321.8 (54.7) 0.009 0.858
Normalized GM volume, mean (SD) 685.1 (38.4) 723.9 (38.4) 0.003 0.914
Normalized WM volume, mean (SD) 586.3 (30.8) 597.9 (3.34) 0.356 0.358
CSF volume 385.1 (64.0) 349.9 (61.6) 0.076 0.548
  1. MCI Mild cognitive impairment, AD Alzheimer’s disease, JVR Jugular venous reflux, WB Whole brain, GM Gray matter, WM White matter, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid.
  2. Volumes are expressed in millilitres.
  3. n.a. not applicable, n Number, SD Standard deviation, % - Percentage.
  4. p values determined by 2-tailed Mann Whitney U-test.