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Table 1 Overview of cohort’s clinical and visual data

From: Low contrast visual acuity testing is associated with cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional pilot study

Subjects N RRMS
89
Sex Male, N (%) 36 (40)
Female, N (%) 53 (60)
Age (years) Mean ± SD 42 ± 9
  Min - Max 25 - 62
Time since diagnosis (months) Mean ± SD 97 ± 67
  Min - Max 2 - 340
EDSS Median 2.0
  Min - Max 0.0 - 6.0
RNFL Average (μm) Mean ± SD 84.5 ± 14.3
  Min - Max 33.2 - 117.4
VA (ETDRS Snellen equivalents) Mean ± SD 1.05 ± 0.36
  Min - Max 0.20 - 1.60
CS (FACT AUC) Mean ± SD 1.85 ± 0.32
  Min - Max 0.82 - 2.28
Cognitively impaired (BRB-N z < 0.168) No, N (%) 63 (72)
  Yes, N (%) 25 (28)
Fatigue severity scale (FSS) Mean ± SD 5.0 ± 2.5
  Min - Max 0.0 - 9.0
Fatigued (FSS > = 4.0) No, N (%) 35 (39)
  Yes, N (%) 54 (61)
Beck’s depression inventory (BDI) Mean ± SD 8.1 ± 7.9
  Min - Max 0 - 29
Depressed (BDI > = 30; 19-29; 10-18; 0-9) Minimal, N (%) 60 (69)
  Mild, N (%) 14 (16)
  Moderate, N (%) 13 (15)
  Severe, N (%) 0 (0)
  1. Abbreviations: EDSS expanded disability status scale, RNFL retinal nerve fibre layer thickness, VA visual acuity, ETDRS early treatment diabetic retinopathy study, CS contrast sensitivity, FACT functional acuity contrast testing, AUC area under the log contrast sensitivity function, BRB-N brief repeatable battery of neuropsychological tests.