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Table 4 Predictors of composite cardiovascular outcome in the univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses

From: Long-term outcome of vertebral artery origin stenosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
Model 1 Model 2
  Hazard ratio (95% CI) P-value Hazard ratio (95% CI) P-value Hazard ratio (95% CI) P-value
Age (per 1 year) 1.01 (0.97–1.05) 0.720 1.00 (0.95–1.06) 0.893 -  
Sex, male 0.95 (0.40–2.23) 0.901 0.77 (0.22–2.70) 0.678 0.83 (0.34–2.05) 0.685
Hypertension 2.27 (0.66–7.75) 0.181 2.10 (0.56–7.82) 0.271 -  
Diabetes 2.21 (0.88–5.55) 0.082 1.89 (0.70–5.11) 0.208 -  
Hyperlipidemia 1.32 (0.56–3.14) 0.522 1.31 (0.52–3.33) 0.570 1.54 (0.64–3.72) 0.340
Atrial fibrillation 1.39 (0.31–6.32) 0.669 1.56 (0.24–10.24) 0.642 1.19 (0.23–6.10) 0.837
Smoking 1.19 (0.49–2.90) 0.697 1.52 (0.40–5.77) 0.538 -  
Previous stroke history 1.33 (0.51–3.44) 0.557 1.40 (0.51–3.82) 0.516 -  
Coronary arterial disease 1.26 (0.45–3.59) 0.661 0.99 (0.31–3.17) 0.984 -  
Peripheral arterial disease 4.99 (1.13–22.0) 0.034 8.29 (0.92–74.52) 0.059 -  
ESRS (per 1) 1.38 (1.01–1.88) 0.045 -   1.46 (1.02–2.08) 0.036
Symptomatic stenosis of vertebral artery origin* 0.99 (0.41–2.39) 0.978 1.09 (0.40–2.95) 0.869 1.04 (0.40–2.74) 0.935
Concurrent vertebrobasilar stenosis 1.61 (0.67–3.90) 0.287 1.12 (0.39–3.21) 0.837 1.35 (0.52–3.55) 0.540
Concurrent carotid stenosis 0.90 (0.30–2.68) 0.848 0.41 (0.89–1.91) 0.256 0.65 (0.21–2.06) 0.467
  1. *symptomatic stenosis compared to asymptomatic stenosis of vertebral artery origin.
  2. indicates the presence of concurrent severe stenosis or occlusion of the contralateral vertebral artery, or tandem stenosis of the intracranial vertebral artery or basilar artery.
  3. indicates the concurrent presence of more than 50% stenosis of at least one carotid artery.
  4. ESRS Essen Stroke Risk Score.