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Table 1 Characteristics and comparisons of the participants’ characteristics separated into three groups according to the type of anti-dementia drug used (n = 120)

From: Anti-dementia drugs and changes in gait: a pre-post quasi-experimental pilot study

  No treatment (n = 36) CEIs (n = 43) Memantine (n = 41) P-value*
Overall No treatment versus CEIs No treatment versus memantine CEIs versus memantine
Age, mean ± SD (years) 81.3 ± 5.5 81.0 ± 6.6 83.4 ± 6.3 0.189 - - -
Female gender, n (%) 22 (61.1) 30 (69.8) 25 (61.0) 0.633 - - -
BMI, mean ± SD (kg/m2) 26.9 ± 4.4 26.2 ± 4.9 26.1 ± 4.5 0.763 - - -
Number of drugs daily taken, mean ± SD 6.2 ± 3.2 5.2 ± 3.3 6.0 ± 3.1 0.267 - - -
Use psychoactive drugs, n (%) 17 (47.2) 16 (37.2) 12 (29.3) 0.348    
MMSE score‡ (/30 points), mean ± SD 20.8 ± 5.7 19.8 ± 4.6 14.7 ± 4.3 <0.001 0.169 <0.001 <0.001
Time between visits, mean ± SD (days) 232.9 ± 103.7 220.0 ± 67.5 186.7 ± 96.2 0.062 - - -
Walking speed (cm/s), mean ± SD 68.3 ± 21.3 62.4 ± 21.3 60.9 ± 22.8 0.466 - - -
CoV of stride time (%), mean ± SD        
  Before treatment 4.8 ± 2.2 4.9 ± 2.8 6.1 ± 5.0 0.699 - - -
  After treatment 5.4 ± 5.7 5.8 ± 4.2 4.2 ± 2.4 0.035 0.084 0.647 0.010
  1. CEIs: acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; BMI: body mass index; MMSE: Folstein's Mini-Mental State Examination; CoV: coefficient of variation; SD: standard deviation; *: comparison based on analysis of variance Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann–Whitney or the Chi-square test, as appropriate; †: benzodiazepines, antidepressants or neuroleptics at baseline assessment; ‡: at baseline assessment (i.e., before treatment); P-value significant (i.e., <0.05) indicated in bold.