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Table 2 Results of analysis of covariance with a repeated measures (n = 240) design analyzing the influence of anti-dementia drugs effect (i.e., no anti-dementia drug, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or memantine), time effect (i.e., time between before and after anti-dementia drugs introduction) and their interaction on the coefficient Cov of stride time (dependent variable) among participants (n = 120)

From: Anti-dementia drugs and changes in gait: a pre-post quasi-experimental pilot study

Source of variation CoV of stride time*
Model 1† Model 2†
P-value‡ df F P-value‡ df F
Anti-dementia drugs effect# 0.937 2.5 0.06 0.612 2.5 0.50
Time effect¶ 0.608 1.5 0.26 0.606 1.5 0.27
Anti-dementia drugs x time interaction 0.034 2.5 3.43 0.038 2.5 3.50
Age     0.850 1.5 0.04
Female gender     0.958 1.5 0.00
BMI     0.078 1.5 3.23
Number of drugs daily taken     0.857 1.5 0.03
Use of psychoactive drugs**     0.918 1.5 0.01
MMSE score††     0.093 1.5 2.94
Walking speed     0.265 1.5 1.27
  1. CoV: coefficient of variation; BMI: body mass index; df: degree of freedom; MMSE: Folstein's Mini-Mental State Examination; *: normalized by taking the square-root and coded as a continuous variable, †: separated models (Model 1: non-adjusted on baseline characteristics; Model 2: full adjusted model); ‡: box conservative estimate; #: pool effect of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine; ¶: time between before and after introduction of anti-dementia drugs; **: benzodiazepines, antidepressants or neuroleptics; ††: at baseline assessment (i.e., before treatment); P-value significant (i.e., P < 0.05) indicated in bold.