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Table 1 Characteristics of brainstems lesions in NMO patients (31)

From: Modifications of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis and brainstem lesions in the course of neuromyelitis optica (NMO): a population-based, descriptive study

Clinical manifestations Anti-AQP4 antibodies positive Anti-AQP4 antibodies negative
  Number of patients = 18 Number of patients = 13
MRI of brain At disease onset At follow-up At disease onset At follow-up
Normal 8 2 6 1
Non-specific changes 10 8 8 6
MS-like changes* 0 8 0 7
Topological distribution of Brainstem lesions** F/m Sym Asym EDDS F/m Sym Asym EDDS
2-4 5-7 8-9 2-4 5-7 8-9
Medulla oblongata 10/2 12 0 4 4 4 4/2 6 0 2 4 0
Area postrema 6/2 8 0 3 3 2 1/2 3 0 0 1 2
Pons 6/1 7 0 2 2 3 2/1 3 0 0 1 2
Mesencephalon 2/1 0 3 0 2 1 3/1 0 2 0 3 1
Hypothalamic and thalamic 5/0 0 5 1 2 2 1/1 0 0 1 1 0
  1. * = meeting the Barkhof criteria for dissemination in space used in the McDonald criteria as described previously [2]. ** = Lesions were observed in the brainstem a total of 25/31 NMO patients.