Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of patients with MS and controls

From: Small internal jugular veins with restricted outflow are associated with severe multiple sclerosis: a sonographer-blinded, case–control ultrasound study

Parameter Patients (n = 67) Controls (n = 21) p
Female/male (%) 48.0/52.0 33.3/66.7 ns*
Age (years ± SD) 35.7 ± 9.5 32.9 ± 10.1 ns
Age at onset (years ± SD) 27.6 ± 7.5 -  
Disease course, n (%)   -  
CIS 5 (7.5)
RR 41 (61.2)
CP 21 (31.3)
Disease duration (years ± SD) 9.1 ± 6.3 -  
EDSS (mean ± SD) 3.9 ± 2.1 -  
3.8§
MSSS (mean ± SD) 5.4 ± 2.7 - 0.000002#,$
in RR group 4.6 ± 2.0   
in CP group 7.4 ± 1.3   
  1. CIS: clinically isolated syndrome; RR: relapsing-remitting; CP: chronic progressive (including secondary progressive and primary progressive); EDSS: Expanded Disability Status Scale; MSSS: Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score; * χ 2 ; § median; ANOVA; # ANOVA for RR vs. CP patients; $ Scheffe’s post-hoc test for RR vs. CP patients; the values represent the means ± S.D.