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Table 3 Characteristics of patients with MS according to small IJV status

From: Small internal jugular veins with restricted outflow are associated with severe multiple sclerosis: a sonographer-blinded, case–control ultrasound study

Parameter Patients (n = 67) Controls (n = 21) p
  small IJV- small IJV+ small IJV- small IJV+  
n (%) 48 (71.6) 19 (28.4) 15 (71.2) 6 (28.8) ns*
Female/male (%) 45.8/54.2 52.6/47.4 40/60 16.7/83.3 ns*, ns*
Age at onset (years ± SD) 27.4 ± 7.1 28.0 ± 8.7 - 0.8#
Disease duration
(years ± SD)
7.2 ± 5.4 13.8 ± 6.0   0.00004#
Disease course, n (%)    - 0.0002*
CIS 5 (10.4) 0 (0)
RR 35(72.9) 6 (31.6)
CP 8 (16.7) 13 (68.4)
Total 48 (100) 19 (100)
MSSS (mean ± SD) 4.8 ± 2.1 6.8 ± 2.2 - 0.002#
EDSS (mean ± SD) 3.2 ± 1.8 5.6 ± 1.9   0.00003#
  1. Small IJV: small internal jugular vein (CSA ≤ 0.4 cm2); CIS: clinically isolated syndrome; RR: relapsing-remitting; CP: chronic progressive (including secondary progressive and primary progressive); MSSS: Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score; EDSS: Expanded Disability Status Scale; * χ 2; # ANOVA; the values represent the means ± SD; ns: non-significant.