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Table 1 Demographics, utility, MS-specific QOL, IPA scores and economic costs in entire survey sample and 3 groups separated by EDSS values

From: Social participation in patients with multiple sclerosis: correlations between disability and economic burden

  Survey sample EDSS
   0-3.5 4.0-5.5 ≥6.0
No 41 17 17 7
Age (year) 42.8 (9.5)* 37.9 (9.7) § 45.5 (5.4) § 48.3 (12.2)
Sex-ratio M/W 7/34 3/14 2/15 2/5
Education level (year) 12.0 (3.3) 12.1 (3.4) 12.3 (3.4) 10.9 (3.1)
Disease duration (year) 11.7 (7.4)* 8.5 (5.3) § 11.1 (4.8) ¶ 20.9 (10) § ¶
EDSS 4.0 (1.6)* 2.5 (0.8) § 4.7 (0.6) § 6.2 (0.4) §
No of currently employed patients 24 14 10 0
Full time employment (%) 39% 53% 15% 0%
EQ5D-VAS score 0.52 (0.28)* 0.65 (0.31) § 0.44 (0.23) § 0.42 (0.24)
MSQOL-P 51.1 (19.1) 59.5 (21.4) 44.1 (17.0) 47.9 (10.1)
MSQOL-M 55.1 (24) 60.2 (23.2) 51.8 (23.8) 45.0 (14.3)
IPA     
Autonomy indoors 0.91 (0.82)* 0.54 (0.57) § 1.17 (0.83) § 1.34 (1.14)
Family role 1.7 (0.8)* 1.21 (0.67) § 2.14 (0.68) § 1.91 (0.75)
Autonomy outdoors 1.89 (1.08)* 1.19 (0.88) § ¶ 2.49 (0.89) § 2.36 (0.96) ¶
Social life 1.1 (0.65)* 0.87 (0.69) § 1.14 (0.54) 1.71 (0.5) §
Work and education 2.54 (1.32)* 1.74 (1.18) § 3.22 (1.0) § 3.12 (1.28)
Costs (€):     
Total cost 68448 (33374)* 52505 (26570) § 70337 (31975) 102581 (26963) §
Direct medical cost 34210 (3818)* 33062 (3793) § 34571 (3972) 36123 (2893) §
Direct non medical cost 10521 (8297)* 5525 (4651) § ¶ 11885 (7289) ¶ 19290 (9686) §
Informal care 2902 (2689)* 1594 (1637) § 3271 (2285) 5181 (3981) §
Indirect cost 23725 (25871) 13918 (20907) § 23879 (27042) 47167 (20799) §
  1. Mean (Standard deviation).
  2. *Significant difference between groups (one-factor ANOVA on ranks), p ≤ 0.05.
  3. §, ¶ Significant difference between two groups (Bonferroni post-hoc test), p ≤ 0.05.