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Table 1 Baseline profiles

From: Cystatin C, a novel indicator of renal function, reflects severity of cerebral microbleeds

Variables Grade
  Normal Mild Moderate Severe P
No. of CMBs 0 1-4 5-9 10  
No. of Cases, n (%) 494(72.3) 141(20.6) 24(3.5) 24(3.5)  
Demographic data      
Age, mean ± SD 65.7 ± 12.4 69.1 ± 10.9 67.2 ± 13.8 66.6 ± 12.2 0.02
Male, n (%) 311(63.0) 90(63.8) 15(62.5) 17(70.8) 0.89**
Risk factors, n (%)      
Hypertension 229(46.4) 85(60.3) 14(58.3) 15(62.5) 0.01**
Diabetes 125(25.3) 46(32.6) 4(16.7) 6(25.0) 0.23**
Dyslipidemia 152(30.8) 40(28.4) 5(20.8) 3(12.5) 0.20**
Smoking 181(36.6) 43(30.5) 3(12.5) 5(20.8) 0.08**
History of heart disease 105(21.3) 37(26.2) 4(16.7) 5(20.8) 0.56**
History of previous stroke 83(16.8) 39(27.7) 9(37.5) 8(33.3) <0.01**
Initial NIHSS* score 3[1,7] 3[1,5] 4[2,6] 3[1,5] 0.63
Stroke information, n (%)      
Small vessel occlusion 88(17.8) 37(26.2) 11(45.8) 9(37.5) <0.02
Large artery thrombosis 153(31.0) 35(24.8) 3(12.5) 5(20.8)  
Cardio embolism 87(19.6) 33(23.4) 3(12.5) 3(12.5)  
Cryptogenic 79(16.0) 21(14.9) 5(20.8) 5(20.8)  
Other etiology 79(15.6) 15(10.6) 2(8.3) 2(8.3)  
Laboratory data      
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 13.6 ± 2.0 13.3 ± 2.0 13.8 ± 2.1 18.6 ± 5.1 <0.01
Total Cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.5 ± 1.1 4.3 ± 1.1 4.6 ± 0.8 4.6 ± 0.7 0.24
White blood cell count (106/μL) 7.8 ± 2.8 7.7 ± 3.0 7.3 ± 2.0 6.8 ± 2.1 0.28
Cystatin C, 53.9 60.7 61.0 64.7 0.01
median[IQR] (nmol/L) [46.4,63.7] [47.9,74.9] [51.9,68.9] [54.9,82.2]
Creatinine (μmol/L) 99.3 ± 69.1 114.5 ± 83.7 92.3 ± 20.3 148.0 ± 52.9 0.01
Estimated GFR*, 82.2 ± 25.7 74.1 ± 26.4 80.8 ± 26.5 75.2 ± 25.4 <0.01
mean ± SD (ml/min/1.73 m2)
Microalbumin/Creatinine, 0.02 0.03 0.01 0.03 0.21
median[IQR] (μg/mg) [0.01,0.08] [0.01,0.18] [0.01,0.10] [0.01,0.20]  
Severity of WML*, n (%)      
Normal 207(42.2) 33(23.6) 1(4.2) 0(0) <0.01**
Punctate 131(26.7) 34(24.3) 1(4.2) 0(0)  
Early confluent 46(9.4) 21(15.0) 3(12.5) 2(8.3)  
Confluent 107(21.8) 52(37.1) 19(79.2) 22(11.0)  
Anti thrombotics, n (%) 57(11.5) 28(19.9) 6(25.0) 5(20.8) 0.91**
Aspirin 49(9.9) 28(19.9) 6(25.0) 5920.8)  
Other anti thrombotics 8(1.6) 0 0 0  
Anticoagulant, warfarin, n (%) 18(3.6) 11(7.8) 3(12.5) 2(8.3) 0.31**
  1. *NIHSS; National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, GFR;glomerular filtration rate, WML; white matter lesions.
  2. p-values were calculated by the Chi-square test**, one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni methodand Kruskal-Wallis test.