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Table 1 Sample characteristics and bivariate associations with FES(S) scores

From: Factors associated with fear of falling in people with Parkinson’s disease

  Total sample (n = 104) Spearman correlations with FES(S) scores P-value
Age (years), mean (SD) 68 (9.4) −0.270 0.006
PD-duration (years), mean (SD) 5 (4.2) −0.350 &0.001
Cognition (MMSE), median (q1-q3) 28 (26–29) 0.220 0.027
Motor symptoms (UPDRS III), median (q1-q3) 13 (8–20) −0.510 &0.001
Balance (BBS), median (q1-q3) 52.5 (46–55) 0.650 &0.001
Gait speed (10MWT) (m/s), median (q1-q3) 1.18 (0.95–1.35) 0.480 &0.001
Walking difficulties (Walk-12G), median (q1-q3) 8 (4.5–21) −0.760 &0.001
Fatigue (FACIT-F), median (q1-q3) 38 (29–44) 0.710 &0.001
  n (%) a Median (q1-q3) FES(S) scores a P-value Mann Whitney U-test
  No Yes No Yes  
Freezing of gait (item 3, FOGQsa)b 60 (58) 44 (42) 128 (112–130) 87 (44–117) &0.001
Turning hesitations (item 6, FOGQsa)c 68 (65) 36 (35) 126 (105–130) 81 (39–113) &0.001
Dyskinesias (item 32, UPDRS IV)d 66 (63) 38 (37) 124 (95–129) 101 (48–125) 0.009
Need help from others in daily activities (PADLS)e 93 (90) 11 (10) 122 (94–129) 33 (18–50) &0.001
Experienced falls 76 (73) 28 (27) 124 (96–130) 89 (41–114) &0.001
Experienced near falls 64 (62) 39 (38) 127 (106–130) 91 (43–116) &0.001
Experienced balance problems while dual-tasking 52 (50) 52 (50) 128 (111–130) 94 (51–118) &0.001
Pain 78 (75) 26 (25) 123 (94–130) 91 (43–124) 0.005
Retropulsion (NRT)f 78 (75) 26 (25) 124 (83–130) 104 (59–120) 0.011
Female gender 55 (53) 49 (47) 118 (87–129) 113 (61–129) 0.258
  1. aRefers to the dichotomous (No/Yes) variables, and n (%) clarifies the number (percentage) of participants that either have or do not have the specified characteristic.
  2. bItem 3 (“freezing”) of the FOGQsa. Those scoring ≥1 were categorized as freezers.
  3. cItem 6 (“turning hesitations”) of the FOGQsa. Those scoring ≥1 were categorized as having turning hesitations.
  4. dItem 32 of the UPDRS part IV. Those scoring ≥1 were categorized as having dyskinesias.
  5. eThose scoring >2 on the PADLS were categorized as needing help from others in daily activities.
  6. fScores ≥1 on the NRT were categorized as having retropulsion.
  7. BBS, Berg Balance Scale (possible scores, 0–56; higher = better); FACIT-F, the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue scale (possible score, 0–52; higher = better); FES(S), Falls Efficacy Scale, Swedish version (possible scores, 0–130; higher = better); FOGQsa, Freezing of Gait Questionnaire, self-administered version; MMSE, Mini Mental State Examination (possible scores, 0–30; higher = better); NRT, Nutt Retropulsion Test (possible scores, 0–3; higher = worse); PADLS, the Parkinson’s disease Activities of Daily Living Scale (possible scores 1–5; higher = worse); PD, Parkinson’s disease; q1-q3, 1st-3rd quartile; SD, standard deviation; UPDRS III, part III (motor score) of the Unified PD Rating Scale (possible scores, 0–108; higher = worse); UPDRS part IV (complications of therapy), item 32 (possible scores 0–4; higher = worse); 10MWT, 10-meter walking test; m/s, meters per second; Walk-12G, 12-item generic walking scale (possible scores, 0–42; higher = worse).
  8. One participant had a missing value for the MMSE, and another participant had a missing value in relation to near falls.