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Table 1 General characteristics in patients with and without cerebrovascular complications related to infective endocarditis: mean ± SD, n (%)

From: Clinical significance of cerebrovascular complications in patients with acute infective endocarditis: a retrospective analysis of a 12-year single-center experience

  CVC (-) N = 107 CVC (+) N = 37 Pvalue
Age 49.5 ± 18.1 48.0 ± 17.1 0.663
Male 69 (64.5) 27 (73.0%) 0.345
Hypertension 18 (16.8) 7 (18.9) 0.772
Diabetes mellitus 21 (19.6) 6 (16.2) 0.647
Atrial fibrillation 31 (29.0) 12 (32.4) 0.692
Smoking 12 (11.2) 8 (21.6) 0.115
History of IE 1 (0.9) 1 (2.7) 0.449
Dialysis 0 (0.0) 2 (5.4) 0.065
History of CHF 32 (29.9) 9 (24.3) 0.517
Comorbidity index >2 22 (20.6) 9 (24.3) 0.631
Initial C-reactive protein level, mg/dL 7.4 ± 7.3 8.9 ± 6.3 0.437
Diagnostic delay, days 32.8 ± 35.3 29.9 ± 33.3 0.654
Prosthetic valves 45 (42.1) 16 (43.2) 0.900
Mitral valve IE 78 (72.9) 31 (83.8) 0.183
Aortic valve IE 52 (48.6) 17 (45.9) 0.781
Dual valve IE 22 (20.6) 11 (29.7) 0.253
Warfarin use at admission 38 (35.5) 11 (29.7) 0.522
No surgery 21 (19.6) 12 (32.4) 0.111
Causative microorganism    
 Streptococcus viridans 18 (16.8) 4 (10.8) 0.441
 Other streptococci 15 (14.0) 5 (13.5) 0.939
 Staphylococcus aureus 10 (9.3) 9 (24.3) 0.020
 Enterococci 6 (5.6) 2 (5.4) 1.000
 Coagulase negative staphylococci 4 (3.7) 2 (5.4) 0.647
 Others 30 (28.0) 7 (18.9) 0.274
Negative blood cultures 24 (22.4) 8 (21.6) 0.919
Echocardiographic findings    
 Vegetations 99 (92.5) 37 (100) 0.113
 Vegetation size >1 cm 46 (43.0) 24 (64.9) 0.022
 Mobile vegetations 43 (40.2) 29 (78.4) <0.001
 IE-related valve regurgitation 88 (82.2) 30 (81.1) 0.874
In-hospital mortality 18 (16.8) 10 (27.0) 0.176