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Table 3 Ultrasonographic (TCS) findings in the groups of patients and control subjects

From: Ultrasonographic (TCS) and clinical findings in overlapping phenotype of essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease (ET-PD)

TCS parameters Patients (n = 272) Pvalue* Controls (n = 101) Pvalue#
ET-PD (n = 15) ET-only (n = 116) PD-only (n = 141)
SNR cm2 0.22 ± 0.12 0.20 ± 0.11 0.27 ± 0.14 <0.001a 0.15 ± 0.09 <0.001d
SNL cm2 0.27 ± 0.15 0.23 ± 0.14 0.31 ± 0.16 0.001b 0.16 ± 0.09 <0.001e
SNMax cm2 0.30 ± 0.16 0.24 ± 0.14 0.34 ± 0.16 <0.001c 0.18 ± 0.09 <0.001f
SNMax ≥0.20 cm2 10 (66.7) 49 (42.2) 106 (75.2) <0.001 18 (17.8) <0.001
SNMax ≥0.26 cm2 8 (53.3) 38 (32.8) 89 (63.1) 11 (10.9)
V3 cm 0.69 ± 0.31 0.58 ± 0.28 0.58 ± 0.27 NS 0.53 ± 0.25 NSg
LVR cm 1.81 ± 0.3 1.82 ± 0.26 1.78 ± 0.24 NS 1.79 ± 0.26 NS
LVL cm 1.78 ± 0.26 1.81 ± 0.3 1.75 ± 0.24 NS 1.74 ± 0.26 NS
Raphe – or +/- 5 (38.5) 22 (20) 51 (38.6) 0.007 11 (13.1) <0.001
Caudate + 0 (0) 2 (1.7) 2 (1.4) NS 0 (0) NS
Lentiform + 4 (26.7) 20 (17.2) 12 (8.5) NS 4 (4) 0.006
Thalamus + 2 (13.3) 10 (8.6) 10 (7.1) NS 10 (9.9) NS
Red nucleus + 1 (6.7) 20 (17.2) 9 (6.4) 0.008 19 (18.8) 0.005
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD or numbers (percentages). *-p values were counted comparing 3 groups, #-p values were counted comparing 4 groups.
  2. The post hoc multiple comparisons by Tukey HSD and LSD tests showed statistically significant differences between the latter groups:
  3. a-ET-only vs. PD-only p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.03-0.11; b-ET-only vs. PD-only p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.03-0.12; c-ET-only vs. PD-only p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.04-0.13; d-ET-only vs. PD-only p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.03-0.11; ET-only vs. controls p = 0.032, 95% CI 0.003-0.09; PD-only vs. controls p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.07-0.16; e-ET-only vs. PD-only p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.03-0.12; ET-only vs. controls p = 0.03, 95% CI 0.02-0.12; PD-only vs. controls p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.1-0.2; f-ET-only vs. PD-only p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.04-0.13; ET-only vs. controls p = 0.003, 95% CI 0.02-0.12; PD-only vs. controls p < 0.001, 95% CI 0.1-0.2; by LSD only ET-PD vs. controls p = 0.019, 95% CI 0.02-0.17; g-LSD test only ET-PD vs. controls p = 0.042, 95% CI 0.005-0.303.