1 One patient had 2 probable causes, but only 1 cause is listed according to the following hierarchy: large-artery atherosclerosis > cardioembolism > lacune> other determined cause.
2 Most patients had multiple possible causes, but only 1 cause is listed per patient according to the same hierarchy as for probable causes.
* Note one probable case attributed to "other determined cause", also had possible cardioembolism as an etiology, this case was removed from the secondary analysis. A total of 31 cases were removed from the secondary analysis on the basis of either probable (n = 16) or possible (n = 15) cardioembolism as the stroke etiology.
** Other determined causes included: Probable = 38, (10 non-atherosclerotic vasculopathy, 13 hematologic, 4 migraine, 6 oral contraceptive or exogenous estrogen use, 5 other drug related). Possible = 5, (3 hematologic, 2 migraine).