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Table 1 Associations of childhood and adulthood direct pesticide application with PD.

From: Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

  % Exposed*    
  Cases, n = 319 Controls, n = 296 p for trend (GEE model 1)** OR and 95% CI (GEE model 2)**
History of pesticide use     
   Ever 62.7 49.7   1.61 1.13–2.29
   Never 37.3 50.3   1.00 Referent
Frequency (days/year)   0.0017   
   >10 23.5 13.5   2.07 1.26–3.42
   4–10 16.9 13.5   1.41 0.82–2.41
   <4 18.8 18.9   1.36 0.85–2.18
   Never 37.3 50.3   1.00 Referent
Duration (years)   0.013   
   >26 21.9 12.8   1.87 1.16–3.00
   11–26 18.2 18.9   1.35 0.84–2.19
   <11 18.2 14.2   1.68 1.01–2.80
   Never 37.3 50.3   1.00 Referent
Cumulative exposure (days)   0.0023   
   >215 21.6 12.2   2.37 1.42–3.94
   45–215 18.2 16.2   1.28 0.78–2.11
   <45 15.4 14.5   1.43 0.84–2.42
   Never 37.3 50.3   1.00 Referent
  1. *Column totals may not sum to 100 due to rounding or missing data.
  2. **GEE model adjusted for AAE, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption.