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Table 4 Associations of childhood and adulthood direct pesticide application with PD as divided into chemical classes.

From: Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

   % Exposed*   
Functional type History of pesticide use for each chemical class Cases, n = 319 Controls, n = 296 OR and 95% CI (GEE model 2)**
Insecticide Botanical     
     Ever 2.2 0.3 5.93 0.63–56.10
     Ever to any other pesticide 60.5 49.3 1.57 1.10–2.24
     Never 37.3 50.3 1.00 Referent
  N-Methyl carbamate     
     Ever 11.9 10.8 1.31 0.75–2.28
     Ever to any other pesticide 50.8 38.9 1.70 1.17–2.47
     Never 37.3 50.3 1.00 Referent
  Organochlorine     
     Ever 13.2 7.1 1.99 1.09–3.64
     Ever to any other pesticide 49.5 42.6 1.54 1.07–2.23
     Never 37.3 50.3 1.00 Referent
  Organophosphorus     
     Ever 16.6 10.1 1.89 1.11–3.25
     Ever to any other pesticide 46.1 39.5 1.53 1.05–2.23
     Never 37.3 50.3 1.00 Referent
Herbicide Chlorophenoxy acid/ester     
     Ever 4.7 2.7 2.07 0.69–6.23
     Ever to any other pesticide 58.0 47.0 1.58 1.11–2.27
     Never 37.3 50.3 1.00 Referent
  Phosphonoglycine     
     Ever 17.9 13.5 1.53 0.92–2.53
     Ever to any other pesticide 44.8 36.1 1.64 1.12–2.40
     Never 37.3 50.3 1.00 Referent
  Triazine     
     Ever 1.6 2.4 1.08 0.32–3.59
     Ever to any other pesticide 61.1 47.3 1.63 1.14–2.33
     Never 37.3 50.3 1.00 Referent
Multiple uses Inorganic/metal     
     Ever 5.0 3.0 1.51 0.62–3.71
     Ever to any other pesticide 57.7 46.6 1.61 1.13–2.31
     Never 37.3 50.3 1.00 Referent
  1. *Column totals may not sum to 100 due to rounding or missing data.
  2. **GEE model adjusted for AAE, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption.