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Table 3 Risk factor profile and non-adjusted Odds Ratios for stroke and/or transient ischemic attack.

From: The burden of stroke and transient ischemic attack in Pakistan: a community-based prevalence study

  No CVD Stroke/TIA Non-adjusted odds ratio P-value
  n (%)a n (%)a OR (95% CI)  
Age, years (SD) 48.3 (12.7) 50.0 (12.8) 1.01 (0.99-1.03) 0.192
Female gender 190 (44.6) 79 (66.4) 2.45 (1.60-3.75) < 0.001
Family history of CAD or Stroke 86 (20.2) 37 (31.1) 1.78 (1.13-2.81) 0.013
Past Myocardial Infarction 24 (5.6) 11 (11.8) 2.23 (1.12-4.47) 0.023
Systolic BP, mmHg (SD) 128.6 (21.0) 134.9 (27.3) 1.06 (1.02-1.11)b 0.008
Diastolic BP, mmHg (SD) 81.8 (12.1) 84.2 (14.2) 1.08 (0.997-1.167)b 0.061
Hypertension c 203 (47.7) 76 (63.9) 1.94 (1.28 - 2.95) 0.002
Random Blood Glucose, mg/dL (SD) 141.6 (69.6) 164.1 (86.9) 1.02 (1.005-1.030)2 0.004
Elevated RBS d 74 (17.4) 36 (30.3) 2.06 (1.30-3.28) 0.002
Smoking 123 (28.9) 25 (21.0) 0.66 (0.40-1.07) 0.090
Pan, Gutka or Supari Use e 78 (18.3) 30 (25.2) 1.50 (0.93-2.43) 0.096
Weight, kg (SD) 67.7 (17.3) 69.0 (19.2) 1.00 (0.99-1.02) 0.468
Body mass index, kg/m 2 (SD) 26.6 (8.0) 27.5 (6.1) 1.01 (0.99-1.04) 0.269
Obesity f 229 (53.8) 81 (68.1) 1.83 (1.19-2.82) 0.006
Waist Circumference, cm (SD) 93.2 (13.6) 94.7 (16.0) 1.01 (0.99-1.02) 0.301
Waist-Hip Ratio (SD) 0.94 (0.09) 0.93 (0.08) 0.46 (0.05-4.72) 0.516
Elevated WHR g 375 (88.0) 109 (91.6) 1.48 (0.73-3.02) 0.278
Menopause h 98 (57.7) 47 (62.7) 1.23 (0.71-2.15) 0.462
  1. Note: WHR - Waist-hip Ratio, BMI - Body mass index, RBS - Random Blood Sugar, CAD - Coronary Artery Disease, BP - Blood Pressure, SD - Standard Deviation, TIA - Transient Ischemic Attack, CI - Confidence Interval.
  2. aGiven as n(%) except where stated specifically.
  3. bCalculated for each 5 unit increase.
  4. cDefined as systolic BP greater than or equal to 140 mmHg or diastolic BP greater than or equal to 90 mmHg on two readings at least 10 minutes apart and/or self-reported history of persistent hypertension.
  5. dRaised Random Blood Sugar level greater than or equal to 180 mg/dL on one reading.
  6. ePan, gutka and supari are locally available forms of chewable tobacco.
  7. fDefined as body mass index more than or equal to 25 kg/m2.
  8. gDefined as waist-hip ratio greater than 0.88 in males and 0.81 in females.
  9. hMenopause was considered in the female subset of our sample only.