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Table 2 Risk factors for asymptomatic ICAD

From: Clinical, lifestyle, socioeconomic determinants and rate of asymptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis in stroke free Pakistanis

RISK FACTORS Frequency of patients with ICAD (%) Frequency of patients without ICAD (%) Unadjusted PR (CIs) Adjusted PR (CIs) P-value (<0.05 sig.)
Socioeconomic status      
Low 24 (34.8%) 42 (32.1%) 1 1 0.05
Middle 16 (23.2%) 51 (38.9%) 0.66 (0.35-1.24) 0.67 (0.33-1.35) .07
High 29 (42%) 38 (29%) 1.21 (0.70-2.08) 2.26 (1.99-5.62) 0.03
Clinical risk factors      
Diabetes 4 (5.8%) 14 (10.7%) 0.62 (0.23-1.70) 0.58 (0.2-1.67) 0.27
Hypertension 17 (24.6%) 36 (27.5%) 0.97 (0.84-1.12) 0.98 (0.89-1.08) 0.76
Dyslipidemia 7 (10.3%) 3 (2.2%) 1.16 (0.37-3.70) 1.88 (1.25-2.21) 0.04
CVD 2 (2.9%) 1 (.8%) 0.51 (0.13-2.09) 0.30 (0.06-1.43) 0.13
A.Fib 1 (1.4%) 2 (1.5%) 1.04 (0.15-7.49) 1.44 (0.17-3.39) 0.73
Lifestyle factors      
Current smoking 5 (7.2%) 11 (8.4%) 1.12 (0.45-2.78) 1.73 (0.24-2.27) 0.59
Past smoking 3 (4.3%) 10 (7.6%) 1.54 (0.48-4.89) 2.19 (0.51-3.81) 0.30
Smokeless tobacco 19 (27.9%) 5 (3.8%) 1.76 (0.71-4.36) 3.27 (1.07-6.05) 0.02
BMI categories      
Normal 11 (16%) 15 (11.5%) 1 1 0.67
Underweight 20 (29%) 39 (29.8%) 1.30 (0.62-2.71) 1.73 (0.77-3.88) 0.21
Pre-over weight 10 (14.5%) 20 (15.3%) 0.98 (0.46-2.10) 0.92 (0.45-1.84) 0.64
Over-weight 14 (20.3%) 34 (26%) 0.86 (0.44-1.70) 1.18 (0.54-2.60) 0.75
Obese 13 (18.8%) 23 (17.6%) 1.07 (0.53-2.14) 1.13 (0.53-2.38) 0.70
Central obesity      
Waist 19 (27.5%) 30 (23%) 1.20 (0.70-2.03) 1.14 (0.64-2.03) 0.65
Circumference > 80 cms      
Physical activity      
Low 56 (81.2%) 106 (81%) 1 1 0.84
Moderate 3 (4.3%) 6 (4.6%) 0.96 (0.30-3.06) 1.04 (0.32-3.41) 0.09
High 10 (14.5%) 19 (14.5%) 0.99 (0.51-1.94) 1.25 (0.59-2.65) 0.54
Western diet      
Quintile 1 6 (8.7%) 31 (23.7%) 1 1 0.15
Quintile 2 16 (23.2%) 23 (17.6%) 2.46 (0.96-6.29) 2.24 (0.79-6.39) 0.10
Quintile 3 18 (26%) 21 (16%) 2.77 (1.10-6.98) 2.58 (0.95-2.61) 0.14
Quintile 4 13 (18.8%) 26 (19.8%) 2.01 (0.76-5.26) 2.86 (1.11-7.41) 0.02
Quintile 5 13 (18.8%) 25 (19%) 2.05 (0.78-5.40) 3.04 (1.15-7.99) 0.03
Prudent diet      
Quintile 1 11 (16%) 26 (19.8%) 1 1 0.47
Quintile 2 13 (21.5%) 28 (21.4%) 0.95 (0.41-2.19) 1.02 (0.42-2.4) 0.95
Quintile 3 7 (12%) 30 (22.9%) 0.78 (0.32-1.87) 0.76 (0.31-1.92) 0.57
Quintile 4 9 (13%) 9 (7%) 1.68 (0.69-4.06) 1.39 (0.55-3.49) 0.48
Quintile 5 25 (36.2%) 33 (25.2%) 1.48 (0.73-2.99) 1.5 (0.71-3.18) 0.29
Depression 39 (56.5%) 81 (61.8%) 0 .85 (0.53-1.37) 0.91 (0.54-1.53) 0.17