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Table 3 Summary of the literature on clinical impact of NAb in terms of annualized relapse rate, EDSS and MRI activity

From: Neutralizing antibodies and fatigue as predictors of low response to interferon-beta treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis

Study Annualized relapse rate (Number of relapses/year) EDSS score impact MRI impact Study duration
NAb+ NAb- p
IFN β Multiple Sclerosis Study Group, University of British Columbia MS/MRI Analysis Group, Neurology 1996 [ [2]] 1.16 0.50 < 0.05 Positive impact Yes 3 years
Ruddick et al., Neurology 1998 [ [4]] 0.50 0.65 NS No impact Yes 2 years
PRISMS Study Group, Lancet 1998 [ [5]] 1.75 1.74 _ _ _ 2 years
Panitch et al., Neurology 2002 [ [8]] _ _ NS _ Yes 48 weeks
Sorensen et al., Lancet 2003 [ [9]] 0.64 0.43 < 0.03 No impact _ _
Malucchi et al., Neurology 2004 [ [10]] 0.85 0.53 0.039 Negative impact _ 3 years
Francis et al., Neurology 2005 [ [17]] 0.85 0.52 < 0.001 No impact Yes 4 years
Kappos et al., Neurology 2005 [ [18]] 0.97 0.70 0.04 No impact Yes 4 years
Freedman et al., Multiple Sclerosis 2005 [ [11]] _ _ NS No impact Yes 3 years
Hartung et al., Neurology 2011 [ [12]] _ _ 0.39 No impact Yes 5 years
Sato et al., Tokohu J Exp Med 2012 [ [14]] _ _ 0.13 _ Yes _