Disease course, MRI scans and therapy in a patient with AQP4-Ab-positive NMO. The figure depicts clinical relapses (diamonds), MRI findings (T2, FLAIR), and therapy data (methyl prednisolone (MP) 1000 mg i.v. 3–5 daily infusions; tocilizumab 8 mg/kg bodyweight once a month; rituximab 1000 mg i.v. (single infusion), IFN (interferon)-β1a 44 μg s.c. three times a week (Rebif®); IFN-β1b s.c. daily (Betaferon®, Betaseron®); methylpredisolone 250 mg i.v. once per month; azathioprine (AZA)). No relapses have occurred during therapy with tocilizumab (follow-up: 12 months). AQP: aquaporin, AZA: azathioprine, FLAIR: fluid attenuated inversion recovery, IFN: interferon, MP: methyl prednisolone, MRI: magnetic resonance imaging, MS: multiple sclerosis, NMO: neuromyelitis optica.