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Table 1 Characteristics of stroke patients by preadmission use of calcium channel blockers or beta blockers a

From: Impact of preadmission treatment with calcium channel blockers or beta blockers on short-term mortality after stroke: a nationwide cohort study

  Ischemic stroke (n = 83736) Intracerebral hemorrhage (n = 11779) Subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 4528)
Calcium channel blocker Beta blocker Calcium channel blocker Beta blocker Calcium channel blocker Beta blocker
Current use n = 13170 (100%) Non-use n = 67571 (100%) Current use n = 17189 (100%) Non-use n = 63402 (100%) Current use n = 1163 (100%) Non-use n = 10277 (100%) Current use n = 1913 (100%) Non-use n = 9494 (100%) Current use n = 365 (100%) Non-use n = 4051 (100%) Current use n = 413 (100%) Non-use n = 4023 (100%)
Male 47.7 52.2 46.7 52.7 51.8 51.8 51.4 51.7 44.7 42.1 46.2 42.1
Age, years             
 <60 9.7 20.7 9.2 21.6 12.5 26.0 11.5 27.3 24.1 57.1 24.2 57.5
 60-69 19.7 21.9 19.5 22.1 21.0 20.9 20.0 21.0 23.8 20.9 26.6 20.6
 70-79 30.8 26.2 30.7 25.9 31.8 25.2 33.3 24.0 25.5 12.6 24.2 12.4
 ≥80 39.8 31.2 40.5 30.5 34.7 27.9 35.2 27.7 26.6 9.4 24.9 9.4
Comorbidities             
Cardiovascular diseases             
 Congestive heart failure 10.3 7.9 18.6 5.3 9.8 5.6 16.6 3.8 5.2 2.8 15.7 1.6
 Myocardial infarction 11.5 8.2 21.6 4.8 11.6 5.3 17.8 3.3 7.1 2.7 18.2 1.4
 Angina pectoris 24.7 13.4 33.1 10.0 25.1 10.1 30.4 7.5 21.1 5.7 32.4 4.1
 Atrial fibrillation or flutter 19.5 12.1 30.3 8.5 23.6 11.8 38.2 7.5 15.1 4.3 24.7 2.9
 Heart valve disease 6.4 4.0 8.6 3.2 6.7 3.7 11.0 2.6 4.7 1.6 6.8 1.3
 Intermittent claudication 5.1 2.6 4.9 2.5 4.0 1.5 3.6 1.4 2.7 1.0 2.7 1.0
 Venous thromboembolism 4.0 3.7 4.2 3.6 4.6 3.3 4.7 3.2 2.5 2.0 3.9 1.8
 Hypertension 50.5 19.3 47.4 18.4 55.3 18.8 52.1 16.7 47.9 10.5 46.0 10.3
Other diseases             
 Obesity 5.3 3.6 5.4 3.5 7.4 2.7 6.2 2.5 5.2 2.9 5.8 2.7
 Diabetes mellitus 20.0 11.7 19.4 11.5 19.1 8.2 18.3 7.5 14.2 4.8 13.3 4.6
 Chronic kidney disease 4.8 2.1 5.0 1.8 8.5 2.0 7.0 1.8 6.0 1.0 5.8 1.1
 Chronic pulmonary disease 24.4 19.9 21.5 20.5 23.7 18.3 20.6 18.5 28.8 16.8 24.2 17.3
 Alcoholism-related disease 4.9 6.8 5.2 6.8 5.8 8.4 6.2 8.4 5.5 7.6 10.4 7.1
 Dementia 3.7 3.3 3.2 3.4 4.6 3.9 3.6 4.0 2.2 1.2 2.2 1.3
 Cancer 16.2 14.0 16.2 13.9 18.7 15.3 18.6 15.0 16.4 8.0 18.2 7.8
Concurrent medications             
Cardiovascular drugs             
 ACE-Is/ARBs 45.8 21.9 44.9 20.6 43.5 17.3 44.4 15.2 41.1 12.0 45.3 11.4
 Beta blockers 31.8 18.0 - - 28.4 14.7 - - 23.6 7.5 - -
 Calcium channel blockers - - 24.4 13.3 - - 17.3 8.3 - - 20.8 6.6
 Diuretics 44.4 24.2 48.8 21.8 40.3 19.0 43.7 16.5 32.6 11.0 39.5 9.9
 Nitrates 4.3 1.4 5.2 1.0 3.9 1.0 3.9 0.6 2.5 0.4 3.9 0.1
 Statins 28.1 13.7 31.9 11.7 30.8 11.9 31.4 10.3 25.8 8.5 33.9 7.5
 Aspirin 38.9 21.1 45.8 18.2 37.7 18.9 42.1 16.5 29.6 8.2 35.1 7.2
 Clopidogrel 3.1 1.6 4.7 1.1 3.1 1.3 4.6 0.9 1.9 0.9 4.8 0.5
 Vitamin K antagonists 7.7 4.1 10.9 2.9 19.1 8.9 29.0 5.9 8.5 2.9 16.2 1.9
Other drugs             
 Systemic glucocorticoids 5.8 4.6 5.2 4.7 4.8 3.8 5.2 3.7 6.3 2.4 3.9 2.6
 SSRIs 10.6 8.7 10.1 8.7 11.2 9.5 12.7 9.2 9.3 6.9 11.9 6.5
 Bisphosphonates 4.0 3.3 4.0 3.3 4.1 3.7 4.5 3.6 5.2 2.3 3.9 2.2
 NSAIDs 12.1 10.7 11.2 10.9 11.4 10.2 9.4 10.6 15.1 10.4 11.4 10.8
  1. an = 100,043. Table values are given as %. Data for former users are not shown (n = 2995/3145 among ischemic stroke patients, 339/372 among intracerebral hemorrhage patients, and 112/92 among subarachnoid hemorrhage patients for calcium channel blockers/beta blockers, respectively). ACE-Is/ARBs indicates angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers; SSRIs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.