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Table 2 Demographic and clinical details at baseline and at six months for cognitively impaired and non-cognitively impaired stroke survivors

From: Cognitive impairment six months after ischaemic stroke: a profile from the ASPIRE-S study

  Cognitive impairment No cognitive impairment  
  (n = 128; MoCA < = 25) (n = 98; MocA >26)  
  N (%) N (%) P value Univariate OR 95% CI
Age (Mean, ± SD) 71.8 (11.4) 63.2 (13.1) 0.001 1.06 1.02-1.09
Sex      
Female 63 (67.7) 30 (32.3) <0.001 2.19 1.97- 2.45
Health Insurance status as proxy SES      
Public patient 102 (65.8) 53 (34.2)    
Private patient 26 (36.6) 45 (63.4) 0.001 .33 .14-.63
Baseline risk factors      
Previous TIA/Stroke 41 (74.5) 14 (25.5) <0.001 2.83 1.6-4.9
Heart disease 42 (63.6) 24 (36.4) 0.91 1.5 .63-3.6
Hypertension 76 (60.3) 50 (39.7) 0.055 1.4 .99-1.98
Diabetes 24 (64.9) 13 (35.1) 0.059 1.5 .98-2.31
Hypercholesterolemia 65 (58.6) 46 (41.4) 0.23 1.16 .91-1.49
Smoker 34 (52.3) 31 (47.7) 0.18 .78 .54-1.12
Atrial fibrillation 53 (63.9) 30 (36.1) <0.001 1.6 1.26-1.04
Carotid stenosis 21 (61.8) 13 (38.9) <0.001 1.28 1.14-1.45
Bamford classification      
TACS 6 (66.7) 3 (33.3) 0.67 1.56 .21-11.63
PACS 51 (55.4) 41 (44.6) 0.7 .92 .1-1.4
POCS 36 (53.7) 31 (46.3) <0.001 .84 .77-.92
LACS 33 (62.2) 20 (37.8) 0.002 1.35 1.12-1.64
TOAST classification      
Large artery atherosclerosis 19 (52.8) 17 (47.2) 0.54 .83 .46-1.49
Cardioembolism 52 (59.8) 35 (40.2) 0.22 1.23 .88-1.72
Small vessel occlusion 12 (42.9) 16 (57.1) <0.001 .53 .45-.63
Other determined aetiology 4 (30.8) 9 (68.2) <0.001 .31 .23-.45
Undetermined aetiology 41 (66.1) 21 (33.9) 0.3 1.72 .61-4.89
Stroke severity (SSS scale; Median, IQR) 51 (42–57.5) 56 (49–58) <0.001 .92 .89-.94
Functional dependency      
Pre-stroke function (mRS; Median, IQR) 0 (0–0) 0 (0–0) 0.02 2.07 1.08-3.95
Function at 72 hours (mRS; Median, IQR) 3 (1–4) 1 (0–3) <0.001 1.56 1.41-1.71
Function at six months 2 (1–3) 1 (1–2) <0.001 1.76 1.32-2.34
(mRS; Median, IQR)
VES (> = 3) 71 (73.2) 26 (26.8) 0.01 5.8 1.51-22.53
(n = 200)
HADS-D (>7) 24 (66.7) 12 (33.7) 0.16 2 .76-5.26
(n = 190)
HADS-A (>7) 27 (50.9) 26 (49.1) .98 0.95 .64-1.52
(n = 190)
SSQoL (Median, IQR) 135 (110–153) 152 (135–170) <0.001 0.97 .96-.98
(n = 173)
  1. OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval; SD, standard deviation; SES, socioeconomic status; TIA, transient ischaemic attack; TACS, total anterior circulation stroke; PACS, partial anterior circulation stroke; POCS, posterior circulation stroke; LACS, lacunar stroke; SSS, stroke severity; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; VES, Vulnerable Elders Survey; HADS-D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale- Depression; HADS-A, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale- Anxiety; SSQoL, Stroke Specific Quality of Life.