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Table 2 Overview of the measurement level, target population, upper extremity outcome measures included in the reviews and recommended or meeting the criteria of psychometrics as reported in the primary reviews

From: An overview of systematic reviews on upper extremity outcome measures after stroke

Author year ICF level (special interest) Target population OM for UE and stroke (number) List of included OM for UE Recommended or met the criteria of psychometrics
Number OM Standard or criteria used
Ashford 2008 [22] Activity (real-life functioning) stroke, brain injury 6 MAL (12,14, 26, 28 items), ABILHAND, Leeds Adult Spasticity Impact Scale 1 ABILHAND Met 9 of 11 criteria
Baker 2011 [21] Body function and activity (robot-assisted trials) stroke 25 ARAT, CAHAI, 10s test, AMAT, WMFT, FMA, MSS, MAS, DeSouza, RMA, STREAM, MESUPE, MI, NHPT, FAT, Sodring Motor Evaluation Test, Sollerman, MCA, MMAC, BBT, Functional Test; Patient-reported: DHI, MAL, ABILHAND, UMAQS 3 Additional scales (2) CAHAI, STREAM, ABILHAND Additional (FMA, ARAT) MOT and FDA standards; psychometrics provided for CAHAI, STREAM, ABILHAND
Connell 2012 [31] Body function and activity (clinical utility) neurologic conditions 11 BBT, NHPT, ARAT, ABILHAND, MAL (14,26), RMA, MSS, Sollerman, Simplified STREAM, Fitts Reaching test 2 BBT, ARAT Clinical utility criteria of ≥8; criteria of validity, intra/inter-rater reliability, ability to detect change
Croarkin 2004 [32] Body function and functional limitation (no disability scales) stroke 9 ARAT, CMSA, FMA, MMAC, MAS, MCA, MI, NHPT, RMA 6 NHPT, FMA, MI, CMSA, ARAT, MAS Met 2 of 3 criteria: validity, inter-rater, test-retest reliability; psychometrics provided
Gebruers 2010 [30]* Activity (accelerometry) stroke NA Accelerometry NA NA No specific criteria; psychometrics provided
Hillier 2010 [23] ICF (clinical use) stroke 7 Manual muscle testing, Tardieu Scale, WMFT, Grip strength, CAHAI, Hand Active Sensation Test, NHPT 2 CAHAI Standards described for reliability, validity, responsiveness, utility; psychometrics not provided
Lemmens 2012 [33]* Activity stroke, CP 17 AMAT, CAHAI, FAT, TEMPA, ARAT, JHFT, MESUPE, WMFT, ABILHAND, MAL, DHI, UBDS, Actual amount of use, Functional test, MFT, Hand Function Survey, Accelerometry 9 AMAT, CAHAI, FAT, UBDS, ARAT, JHFT, WMFT, DHI, MAL-26 No specific criteria; reference provided for validity, reliability, responsiveness; psychometrics not provided
Platz 2005 [34]* Body function (spasticity) stroke, MS, SCI and CP with spasticity 11 Ashworth Scale (original, modified, velocity corrected), Muscle Tone Scale, Modified Tardieu Scale, VAS for tone, Tone assessment Scale, ROM (goniometer, estimation), Finger curl test, Tendon reflex scale 0 - No specific criteria; psychometrics not provided
Simpson 2013 [35]* Activity (responsiveness) stroke 14 ABILHAND, AMAT, ARAT, Accelerometry, CAHAI, DHI, FAT, Functional Test, Hand Function Survey, JHFT, MAL, SIS, TEMPA, WMFT 5 ABILHAND, ARAT, MAL, SIS, WMFT No specific criteria; MCID values provided
Sivan 2011 [14] ICF (robot-assisted trials) Stroke 17 FMA, MSS, CMSA, Ashworth Scale, MRC, Kinematics, Grip strength, NHPT, BBT, ARAT, WMFT, CAHAI, AMAT, RMA (arm), FAT, MAS, ABILHAND 5 FMA, Kinematics, ARAT, WMFT, ABILHAND Criteria high/excellent/moderate for validity, reliability, responsiveness provided
Tse 2013 [36] Participation stroke 1 SIS 0 - Criteria for reliability, internal consistency, validity
van Peppen 2007 [37] ICF (clinical utility for physiotherapy practice) stroke 10 Core set: MI, FAT; Optional: ROM, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Nottingham Sensory Assessment, Modified Ashworth Scale, FMA, Hand volumeter, ARAT, NHPT 2 MI, FAT (core set) Level of evidence at least 2 (psychometric properties, clinical utility, ICF)
Velstra 2011 [38]* ICF (reliability, responsiveness) stroke, tetraplegia, peripheral or reumathology conditions 8 Ashworth Scale, ARAT, MAL, WMFT, JHFT, FMA, Muscle strength, ROM 2 ARAT, MAL No specific criteria; grading very good/good for reliability, internal consistency and responsiveness provided; psychometrics not provided
  1. *Reviews did not provide standards, criteria or sufficient information on psychometrics needed for qualification; OM printed in italic were included into the final set (n = 13); Abbreviations: ICF International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, OM outcome measures, UE upper extremity, MS Multiple sclerosis, SCI spinal cord injury, CP cerebral palsy, CAHAI Chedoke Arm Hand Activity Inventory, STREAM Stroke Rehabilitation, Assessment Movement, BBT Box and Block Test, ARAT Action Research Arm Test, NHPT Nine Hole Peg Test, FMA Fugl-Meyer Assessment (motor), MI Motoricity Index, CMSA Chedoke-McMaster Stroke Assessment, MAS Motor Assessment Scale, MAL Motor Activity Log, SIS Stroke Impact Scale, WMFT Wolf Motor Function Test, FAT Frenchay Arm Test (abbreviations for all OM are provided in the end section of the paper).