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Table 1 Background variables

From: Decision-making under explicit risk is impaired in multiple sclerosis: relationships with ventricular width and disease disability

  HCs (n = 20) MS (n = 32) Test RR-1 (n = 13) RR-2 (n = 9) SP (n = 10) Test
Female, n (%) 12 (60%) 24 (75%) χ2 = 1.3 11 (84.6%) 6 (66.7%) 7 (70%) χ2 = 2.28
p = 0.47 p = 0.60
Age, years 48.2 (11.0) 50.81 (9.5) t = 0.9 52.0 (9.8) 46.8 (10.7) 52.9 (7.5) F = 0.96
p = 0.37 p = 0.55
Education, years 14.7 (2.1) 13.6 (1.7) t = −2.0 14.2 (2.1) 13.2 (1.7) 13.4 (0.9) F = 1.88
p = 0.051 p = 0.15
Premorbid IQ 110.2 (11.7) 105.2 (12.2) t = −1.48 110.9 (10.3) 101.2 (15.3) 101.4 (9.0) F = 2.53
p = 0.15 p = 0.07
MS-onset age, years -- 34.4 (9.7) -- 34.1 (9.2) 35.1 (9.7) 34.3 (11.2) F = 0.03
p = 0.98
Disease duration, years -- 15.9 (10.3) -- 17.2 (12.8) 11.3 (7.5) 18.4 (8.4) F = 1.32
p = 0.28
EDSS score (medians, ranges) -- 3 (0–6.5) -- 2 (0–2.5) 3.5 (3–6.5) 6 (3–6.5) --
MSSS -- 3.9 (2.8) -- 1.7 (2.0) a 5.5 (2.5) b 5.3 (1.8) b F = 12.0
p < 0.001
Disease-modifying therapy 1 -- 9 (28.1%) -- 5 (38.5%) 4 (44.4%) 0 (0.0%) --
  1. Abbreviations:EDSS Expanded Disability Status Scale; HCs Healthy controls; MSSS Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score; RR-1 Relapsing-remitting MS patients with EDSS scores 0–2.5; RR-2 Relapsing-remitting MS patients with EDSS scores ≥ 3; SP Secondary progressive MS patients.
  2. 1 Interferon beta 1a or 1b or glatiramer acetate.
  3. ab Different superscripts indicate significant between-group differences in post-hoc t-tests, Bonferroni-corrected.
  4. Data are means (standard deviations) unless stated otherwise.