Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Cognitive composites (z-scaled on study HCs) and GDT performance

From: Decision-making under explicit risk is impaired in multiple sclerosis: relationships with ventricular width and disease disability

Neuropsychological domain/test HCs (n = 20) All MS patients (n = 32) Test RR-1 (n = 13) RR-2 (n = 9) SP (n = 10) Test
Processing speed composite score 0.00 (0.76) −0.81 (0.81) t = 3.58 −0.45 (0.60) −1.04* (0.61) −1.07* (1.07) F = 6.13
p = 0.001 p = 0.001
Memory composite score 0.00 (0.93) −1.54 (1.16) t = 5.02 −1.19* (1.23) −1.57* (1.36) −1.97* (0.76) F = 9.59
p < 0.001 p < 0.001
Executive functions composite score 0.00 (0.59) −0.63 (0.69) t = 3.41 −0.53 (0.85) −0.85* (0.71) −0.58 (0.39) F = 4.30
p = 0.001 p = 0.009
Global cognitive functions composite score 0.00 (0.63) −0.93 (0.63) t = 5.12 −0.61* (0.65) −1.11* (0.71) −1.18* (0.35) F = 10.54
p < 0.001 p < 0.001
GDT – net-score (raw score) 12.5 (7.6) 6.8 (10.9) t = 2.1 13.69 (5.82) 0.22* (11.77) 3.80* (10.73) F = 4.87
p = 0.046 p = 0.01
GDT – strategy shifts (raw score; medians/ranges) 1 (0–10) 3.5 (0–12) U = 1.6 2 (0–8) 4 (0–10) 5.5* (1–12) χ2 = 41.0
p = 0.069 p = 0.009
  1. Abbreviations:HCs: Healthy controls; GDT Game-of-Dice Task; RR-1 Relapsing-remitting MS-patients with EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale) scores 0–2.5; RR-2 Relapsing-remitting MS-patients with EDSS scores ≥ 3; SP Secondary progressive MS-patients.
  2. *Significant difference to healthy controls (post-hoc Dunnett t-test or Bonferroni-corrected U-test).
  3. Data are means (standard deviations) or medians (ranges).