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Table 3 Prognostic factors at diagnosis associated with EDSS score 4 (n = 407)

From: No prognostic value of routine cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in a population-based cohort of 407 multiple sclerosis patients

  Multivariate analysis*
Characteristics   HR 95% CI P value
Age at MS onset (ref age < 20) 20–28 1.25 0.60; 2.57 0.3
  29–38 1.51 0.74; 3.06 0.08
39–49 1.43 0.68; 2.98 0.1
≥50 2.48 1.11; 5.55 0.01
Sex (ref men) Women 1.42 0.99; 2.05 0.1
Initial course of MS (ref primary progressive) Remitting-relapsing 0.20 0.13; 0.31 0.0001
Incomplete recovery from the first relapse (ref yes) No 1.10 0.69; 1.75 0.9
CSF total protein level (ref ≥ 500) ≤500 mg/L 0.73 0.49; 1.08 0.4
CSF IgG-index (ref ≥ 0.6) <0.6 1.36 0.92; 2.02 0.2
CSF oligoclonal bands (ref yes) No 0.76 0.45; 1.30 0.6
Leukocyte count (ref normal) ≥5 mm3 1.08 0.74; 1.56 0.9
MRI Barkhof’s criteria (ref positive) Negative 1.11 0.25; 4.91 0.9
Treatment (ref no) Yes 0.29 0.20; 0.42 <.0001
  1. Multivariate analysis*: Extended Cox model; HR: hazard ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval; EDSS: Expanded Disability Status Scale; CSF: cerebrospinal fluid; MRI: magnetic resonance imaging.