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Table 1 Characteristics of included cohort studies

From: Evidence of perceived psychosocial stress as a risk factor for stroke in adults: a meta-analysis

Author YearCountry Quality rating Cohort size (n)Baseline age range (y) % Male Stroke cases (n)Follow-up years (y) Stress exposure and measure Stroke outcomes Baseline stroke excluded Number of confounders controlled for in adjusted model
Risk estimates Hazard Ratio (95 % CI)
Harmsen, 2006 [33] Sweden 8 7457 100 1019 Self-perceived stress General stress Fatal and non-fatal stroke Yes 11
47–55   28.0 Single question 1.25(1.03-1.52)
Henderson, 2013 [31] USA 8 2326 38 414 Perceived stress General stress Fatal and non-fatal stroke Yes 10
> = 65   6.0 6 item perceived stress scale [41] 1.08(0.97-1.20)
Iso, 2002 [3] Japan, males 8 30,180 100 341 Perceived mental stress General stress Fatal stroke Yes 9
40–79   7.9 Single question 1.12(0.78-1.61)
Iso, 2002 [3] Japan, females 8 43,244 0 316 Perceived mental stress General stress Fatal stroke Yes 9
40–79   7.9 Single question 2.24(1.52-3.30)
Kornerup, 2010 [30] Denmark 8 9542 43 350 > 4 major life events in a life course Fatal and non-fatal ischaemic stroke Yes 11
Mean M   6–9 SLE  
56.6 (SD 15.5) F-59.1 (SD 15.4)    11 item self-report questionnaire 1.32(0.77–2.26)
McLeod, 2001 [26] Scotland 7 5388 100 122 Perceived stress General stress Fatal stroke No 9
35–64   21.0 4 item Reeder stress inventory [42] 0.98(0.55-1.75)
Molshatzki, 2013 [2] Israel 7 10,059 100 665 Perceived hardships General stress Fatal stroke No 7
> = 40   28.1 14 questions on work, family, finance 1.33(1.07-1.65)
Ohlin, 2004 [28] Sweden 8 13,280 80 643 Permanent stress General stress Fatal and non-fatal stroke Yes 9
Mean 45   21.3 2 questions 1.29(1.04-1.60)
Suadicani, 2011 [27] Denmark 7 4943 100 779 Perceived psychological work pressure Fatal and non-fatal stroke (excl SAH) No 8
40–59   30.0 Leisure stress 1.17(0.98-1.40)
3 questions
Truelsen, 2003 [14] Denmark 8 12,574 45 929 Self-reported stress General stress Fatal and non-fatal stroke Yes 11
20–98   14–16 2 questions 1.13(0.85-1.50)
Tsutsumi, 2009 [25] Japan Males 8 3190 100 91 Occupational stress Fatal & Non-fatal stroke Yes 10
18–65   11.0 11 item demand-control questionnaire 2.53(1.08-5.93)
Tsutsumi, 2009 [25] females 8 3363 0 56 Occupational stress Fatal & Non-fatal stroke Yes 10
18–65   11.0 11 item demand-control questionnaire 1.46(0.63-3.38)