Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)^{a} [mmHg]

Baseline (Before)

100 [86–114]

99 [90–108]

100 [82–118]

p = 1.00

90 [79–92]

5 min

125 [115–137]

121 [109–138]

123 [109–129]
 
88 [78–102]

15 min

76 [62–94]

79 [77–92]

85 [69–100]
 
98 [87–105]

30 min

85 [65–98]

73 [68–86]

85 [66–93]
 
NA

60 min

95 [82–97]

85 [67–101]

99 [83–111]
 
NA

FriedmanTest p

<0.001
^{a}

<0.001
^{a}

0.004
^{a}
 
0.964

Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.621

(Coef. helium: −1.93 CI −11.49 to 7.63; Coef. argon: −4.71 CI −14.70 to 5.28)

Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p < 0.001

Heart rate^{a} [1 min^{−1}]

Baseline (Before)

300 [268–345]

340 [298–383]

360 [325–395]

p = 0.10

300 [285–380]

5 min

300 [288–325]

290 [270–330]

320 [265–355]
 
320 [320–380]

15 min

300 [285–325]

310 [290–340]

290 [280–340]
 
360 [340–380]

30 min

360 [320–400]

320 [308–410]

395 [345–420]
 
NA

60 min

340 [300–400]

340 [323–435]

420 [375–450]
 
NA

FriedmanTest p

0.058

0.005
^{a}

<0.001
^{a}
 
0.369

Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.056

(Coef. helium: −30.3 CI −56.0 to −4.7; Coef. argon: −17.3 CI −50.1 to 15.5)

Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p < 0.001

Glucose^{a} [mmol/l]

Baseline (Before)

10.5 [8.9–11.6]

9.9 [8.8–10.9]

10.4 [8.4–11.1]

p = 0.87

9.8 [8.7–11.2]

5 min

13.7 [13.4–14.5]

13.3 [11.1–16.0]

13.5 [13.1–15.6]
 
8.2 [7.5–10.2]

15 min

12.5 [11.5–13.5]

13.5 [11.2–14.3]

13.7 [10.6–14.8]
 
9.0 [7.0–10.6]

60 min

5.7 [4.3–6.6]

5.8 [5.1–6.4]

5.7 [5.3–6.1]
 
NA

FriedmanTest p

<0.001
^{a}

<0.001
^{a}

<0.001
^{a}
 
0.12

Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 1.000

(Coef. helium: 0.06 CI −1.55 to 1.67; Coef. argon: 0.04 CI −1.63 to 1.70)

Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p < 0.001

Lactate^{a} [mmol/l]

Baseline (Before)

1.2 [0.9–1.3]

1.2 [1.0–1.7]

1.1 [1.0–1.5]

p = 0.72

1.0 [0.9–1.4]

5 min

7.0 [6.4–7.5]

7.2 [6.1–8.2]

6.8 [6.3–8.0]
 
1.0 [0.6–1.2]

15 min

3.5 [3.2–3.8]

3.2 [3.0–3.9]

3.6 [3.0–4.4]
 
0.9 [0.6–1.8]

60 min

0.8 [0.6–1.2]

0.7 [0.6–0.8]

0.7 [0.6–0.8]
 
NA

FriedmanTest p

<0.001
^{a}

<0.001
^{a}

<0.001
^{a}
 
0.531

Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.771

(Coef. helium: 0.38 CI −0.81 to 1.57; Coef. argon: −0.04 CI −0.56 to 0.48)

Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p < 0.001

pH^{a}

Baseline (Before)

7.50 [7.45–7.53]

7.50 [7.45–7.54]

7.42 [7.40–7.49]

p = 0.17

7.41 [7.37–7.51]

5 min

7.09 [7.01–7.15]

7.02 [6.96–7.10]

7.09 [6.98–7.16]
 
7.44 [7.36–7.47]

15 min

7.24 [7.16–7.28]

7.16 [7.08–7.26]

7.30 [7.10–7.31]
 
7.45 [7.347–7.49]

60 min

7.38 [7.32–7.44]

7.35 [7.30–7.39]

7.39 [7.33–7.41]
 
NA

FriedmanTest p

<0.001
^{a}

<0.001
^{a}

<0.001
^{a}
 
0.967

Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.631

(Coef. helium: 0.11 CI −0.37 to 0.15; Coef. argon: −0.02 CI −0.08 to 0.05)

Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p = 0.037

pO_{2} [mmHg]

Baseline (Before)

114 [106–124]

114 [101–132]

106 [83–139]

p = 0.83

83 [74–97]

5 min

203 [146–246]

155 [127–250]

195 [265–355]
 
332 [270–342]

15 min

125 [101–159]

109 [105–143]

129 [118–165]
 
240 [90–324]

60 min

159 [136–185]

140 [128–181]

195 [182–212]
 
NA

FriedmanTest p

0.007
^{a}

<0.001
^{a}

<0.001
^{a}
 
0.236

Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.373

(Coef. helium: −45.5 CI −114.2 to 23.2; Coef. argon: −48.8 CI −118.9 to 21.3)

Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p = 0.670

pCO_{2}
^{a} [mmHg]

Baseline (Before)

32 [29–37]

31 [27–35]

37 [27–39]

p = 0.69

34 [32–42]

5 min

46 [38–66]

53 [40–66]

46 [37–52]
 
35 [32–43]

15 min

39 [36–53]

44 [35–62]

36 [32–46]
 
36 [30–43]

60 min

39 [34–47]

41 [35–49]

35 [31–39]
 
NA

FriedmanTest p

0.002
^{a}

0.003
^{a}

0.013
^{a}
 
0.335

Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.741

(Coef. helium: 2.07 CI −6.03 to 10.17; Coef. argon: 3.40 CI −5.80 to 12.59)

Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p < 0.001

Temp. [°C]

Baseline (Before)

36.0 [35.7–36.2]

36.4 [36.1–36.5]

36.0 [35.8–36.2]

p = 0.07

36.0 [35.8–37.1]

5 min

35.3 [35.0–35.4]

35.0 [34.8–35.6]

35.3 [34.7–35.6]
 
36.5 [36.0–36.9]

15 min

36.2 [36.0–36.3]

36.2 [35.8–36.2]

36.2 [36.0–36.6]
 
36.4 [36.1–36.6]

60 min

36.8 [36.3–37.4]

36.6 [36.4–37.2]

37.0 [36.7–37.3]
 
NA

FriedmanTest p

<0.001
^{a}

<0.001
^{a}

0.002
^{a}
 
0.967

Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.378

(Coef. helium: 0.42 CI −0.54 to 1.37; Coef. argon: −0.84 CI −2.46 to 0.77)

Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p = 0.487
