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Table 1 Hemodynamic data and blood gas analysis

From: A randomized trial of the effects of the noble gases helium and argon on neuroprotection in a rodent cardiac arrest model

  Helium/oxygen Argon/oxygen Air/oxygen Kruskall - Wallis Non-ischemic sham
Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP)a [mmHg] Baseline (Before) 100 [86–114] 99 [90–108] 100 [82–118] p = 1.00 90 [79–92]
5 min 125 [115–137] 121 [109–138] 123 [109–129]   88 [78–102]
15 min 76 [62–94] 79 [77–92] 85 [69–100]   98 [87–105]
30 min 85 [65–98] 73 [68–86] 85 [66–93]   NA
60 min 95 [82–97] 85 [67–101] 99 [83–111]   NA
Friedman-Test p <0.001 a <0.001 a 0.004 a   0.964
Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.621
(Coef. helium: −1.93 CI −11.49 to 7.63; Coef. argon: −4.71 CI −14.70 to 5.28)
Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p < 0.001
Heart ratea [1 min−1] Baseline (Before) 300 [268–345] 340 [298–383] 360 [325–395] p = 0.10 300 [285–380]
5 min 300 [288–325] 290 [270–330] 320 [265–355]   320 [320–380]
15 min 300 [285–325] 310 [290–340] 290 [280–340]   360 [340–380]
30 min 360 [320–400] 320 [308–410] 395 [345–420]   NA
60 min 340 [300–400] 340 [323–435] 420 [375–450]   NA
Friedman-Test p 0.058 0.005 a <0.001 a   0.369
Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.056
(Coef. helium: −30.3 CI −56.0 to −4.7; Coef. argon: −17.3 CI −50.1 to 15.5)
Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p < 0.001
Glucosea [mmol/l] Baseline (Before) 10.5 [8.9–11.6] 9.9 [8.8–10.9] 10.4 [8.4–11.1] p = 0.87 9.8 [8.7–11.2]
5 min 13.7 [13.4–14.5] 13.3 [11.1–16.0] 13.5 [13.1–15.6]   8.2 [7.5–10.2]
15 min 12.5 [11.5–13.5] 13.5 [11.2–14.3] 13.7 [10.6–14.8]   9.0 [7.0–10.6]
60 min 5.7 [4.3–6.6] 5.8 [5.1–6.4] 5.7 [5.3–6.1]   NA
Friedman-Test p <0.001 a <0.001 a <0.001 a   0.12
Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 1.000
(Coef. helium: 0.06 CI −1.55 to 1.67; Coef. argon: 0.04 CI −1.63 to 1.70)
Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p < 0.001
Lactatea [mmol/l] Baseline (Before) 1.2 [0.9–1.3] 1.2 [1.0–1.7] 1.1 [1.0–1.5] p = 0.72 1.0 [0.9–1.4]
5 min 7.0 [6.4–7.5] 7.2 [6.1–8.2] 6.8 [6.3–8.0]   1.0 [0.6–1.2]
15 min 3.5 [3.2–3.8] 3.2 [3.0–3.9] 3.6 [3.0–4.4]   0.9 [0.6–1.8]
60 min 0.8 [0.6–1.2] 0.7 [0.6–0.8] 0.7 [0.6–0.8]   NA
Friedman-Test p <0.001 a <0.001 a <0.001 a   0.531
Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.771
(Coef. helium: 0.38 CI −0.81 to 1.57; Coef. argon: −0.04 CI −0.56 to 0.48)
Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p < 0.001
pHa Baseline (Before) 7.50 [7.45–7.53] 7.50 [7.45–7.54] 7.42 [7.40–7.49] p = 0.17 7.41 [7.37–7.51]
5 min 7.09 [7.01–7.15] 7.02 [6.96–7.10] 7.09 [6.98–7.16]   7.44 [7.36–7.47]
15 min 7.24 [7.16–7.28] 7.16 [7.08–7.26] 7.30 [7.10–7.31]   7.45 [7.347–7.49]
60 min 7.38 [7.32–7.44] 7.35 [7.30–7.39] 7.39 [7.33–7.41]   NA
Friedman-Test p <0.001 a <0.001 a <0.001 a   0.967
Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.631
(Coef. helium: 0.11 CI −0.37 to 0.15; Coef. argon: −0.02 CI −0.08 to 0.05)
Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p = 0.037
pO2 [mmHg] Baseline (Before) 114 [106–124] 114 [101–132] 106 [83–139] p = 0.83 83 [74–97]
5 min 203 [146–246] 155 [127–250] 195 [265–355]   332 [270–342]
15 min 125 [101–159] 109 [105–143] 129 [118–165]   240 [90–324]
60 min 159 [136–185] 140 [128–181] 195 [182–212]   NA
Friedman-Test p 0.007 a <0.001 a <0.001 a   0.236
Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.373
(Coef. helium: −45.5 CI −114.2 to 23.2; Coef. argon: −48.8 CI −118.9 to 21.3)
Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p = 0.670
pCO2 a [mmHg] Baseline (Before) 32 [29–37] 31 [27–35] 37 [27–39] p = 0.69 34 [32–42]
5 min 46 [38–66] 53 [40–66] 46 [37–52]   35 [32–43]
15 min 39 [36–53] 44 [35–62] 36 [32–46]   36 [30–43]
60 min 39 [34–47] 41 [35–49] 35 [31–39]   NA
Friedman-Test p 0.002 a 0.003 a 0.013 a   0.335
Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.741
(Coef. helium: 2.07 CI −6.03 to 10.17; Coef. argon: 3.40 CI −5.80 to 12.59)
Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p < 0.001
Temp. [°C] Baseline (Before) 36.0 [35.7–36.2] 36.4 [36.1–36.5] 36.0 [35.8–36.2] p = 0.07 36.0 [35.8–37.1]
5 min 35.3 [35.0–35.4] 35.0 [34.8–35.6] 35.3 [34.7–35.6]   36.5 [36.0–36.9]
15 min 36.2 [36.0–36.3] 36.2 [35.8–36.2] 36.2 [36.0–36.6]   36.4 [36.1–36.6]
60 min 36.8 [36.3–37.4] 36.6 [36.4–37.2] 37.0 [36.7–37.3]   NA
Friedman-Test p <0.001 a <0.001 a 0.002 a   0.967
Linear regression with clustered robust SE p = 0.378
(Coef. helium: 0.42 CI −0.54 to 1.37; Coef. argon: −0.84 CI −2.46 to 0.77)
Time effect: fractional polynomial regression p = 0.487
  1. Comparisons of baseline parameters were calculated with the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA on Ranks. Differences between the groups were computed with a linear regression with clustered robust SE, time effect with fractional polynomial regression. The animals in the non-ischemic sham group were not randomized, and thus indicated in italic style. These animals are not included in the main statistical analysis. The post-hoc Kruskall Wallis and Friedman tests were performed to compare groups at baseline and the time effect within the groups, but should be interpreted with caution (see text). Data are given as median and [interquartile ranges]
  2. a denotes significant time effects