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Table 2 Cox regression analyses investigating predictors of all-cause mortality for cases (n = 600)

From: Living alone predicts mortality in patients with ischemic stroke before 70 years of age: a long-term prospective follow-up study

  All-cause mortality
Univariable Multivariable
HR 95 % CI P HR 95 % CI P a
Age 1.05 (1.03–1.08) <0.001 1.05 (1.02–1.08) <0.001
Male 1.38 (0.92–2.07) 0.12 0.80 (0.45–1.41) 0.44
Living alone, females 1.38 (0.68–2.77) 0.38 1.28 (0.62–2.64) 0.50
Living alone, males 3.33 (2.14–5.18) <0.001 3.47 (2.13–5.65) <0.001
Gender-living alone 3.11 (2.12–4.56) <0.001 2.70 (1.14–6.43) 0.02
Risk factors       
 Hypertension 1.16 (0.78–1.71) 0.47 - -  
 Diabetes mellitus 2.32 (1.56–3.44) <0.001 2.10 (1.36–3.24) <0.001
 Hyperlipidemia 1.01 (0.63–1.64) 0.96 - -  
 Smoking 1.62 (1.11–2.35) 0.01 1.31 (0.87–1.96) 0.20
Socioeconomic and life-style factors       
 Occupation, lower education 1.39 (0.91–2.11) 0.13 1.07 (0.68–1.68) 0.79
 Sedentary leisure timeb 1.86 (1.22–2.84) 0.006 0.76c (0.36–1.63) 0.48
1.51d (0.87–2.63) 0.14
 Self-perceived psychological stress 0.79 (0.48–1.30) 0.35 0.99 (0.58–1.72) 0.98
 Alcohol consumption >4 times a week 1.61 (0.88–2.94) 0.12 1.41 (0.74–2.68) 0.30
Comorbidities       
 History of coronary heart diseaseb 2.64 (1.73–4.04) <0.001 0.80c (0.36–1.80) 0.60
2.33d (1.34–4.05) 0.003
 History of stroke 1.19 0.76–1.86) 0.46 - -  
Stroke severity       
 Mild, SSS score 43–58 Reference Reference
 Moderate, SSS score 26–42 1.94 (1.25–3.01) 0.003 1.63 (1.03–2.58) 0.04
 Severe, SSS score 0–25 1.30 (0.69–2.45) 0.42 0.99 (0.51–1.95) 0.99
TOAST subtype       
 Small vessel disease Reference Reference
 Large vessel disease 3.33 (1.77–6.30) <0.001 2.75 (1.42–5.33) 0.003
 Cardioembolic stroke 3.15 (1.70–5.82) <0.001 2.80 (1.44–5.42) 0.003
 Cryptogenic strokeb 0.81 (0.40–1.64) 0.56 2.18c (0.94–5.07) 0.07
0.58d (0.20–1.63) 0.30
 Other determined stroke 0.79 (0.29–2.18) 0.65 1.58 (0.55–4.56) 0.40
 Undetermined stroke 1.75 (0.88–3.48) 0.11 1.94 (0.96–3.93) 0.07
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, SSS Scandinavian Stroke Scale
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex, living situation, diabetes mellitus, smoking, occupation, leisure physical activity, self-perceived psychological stress, alcohol consumption, history of coronary heart disease, stroke severity, and stroke subtype
  3. bTime-dependent variable was used
  4. cFor 0–4 years
  5. dFor 4–8 years