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Table 2 Univariate analyses examining candidate predictors of Stigma in Multiple Sclerosis (MS)

From: Determinants of stigma in a cohort of hellenic patients suffering from multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional study

  SSCI-T SSCI-I SSCI-E   SSCI-T SSCI-I SSCI-E
Pearson’s r with age 0.19 0.19 0.16 Caregiver (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD)
      Yes 40.67 ± 14.87 24.47 ± 10.24 16.2 ± 6.06
 No 35.78 ± 11.89 21.29 ± 8.62 14.49 ± 4.55
p value (Pearson’s) 0.001 0.001 0.006 p value (Mann–Whitney)) 0.002 0.004 0.007
Gender (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) Pearson’s r with Healthy Lifestyle Score 0.07 0.06 0.08
 Male 37.07 ± 12.51 22.2 ± 8.43 14.87 ± 5.26     
 Females 39.56 ± 14.57 23.71 ± 10.31 15.85 ± 5.70     
p value (Mann–Whitney) 0.17 0.39 0.09 p value (Pearson’s) 0.192 0.276 0.172
Marital Status (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) Pearson’s r with EDSS 0.44 0.40 0.40
 Married or living with someone 37.65 ± 12.79 22.33 ± 8.87 15.32 ± 5.49     
 Unmarried or living alone 40.27 ± 15.36 24.45 ± 10.76 15.81 ± 5.71     
p value (Mann–Whitney) 0.19 0.07 0.32 p value (Pearson’s) <0.0001 <0.0001 <0.0001
Education (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) Pearson’s r with duration of disease 0.18 0.16 0.16
 Primary or Secondary 39.54 ± 14.85 23.68 ± 10.18 15.86 ± 6.0     
 Tertiary 37.93 ± 12.86 22.76 ± 9.25 15.18 ± 5.02     
p value (Mann–Whitney) 0.44 0.53 0.41 p value (Pearson’s) 0.001 0.004 0.004
Working Status (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) Type of MS (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD)
 Working/student/pensioner 38.15 ± 14.19 22.82 ± 9.99 15.33 ± 5.53 RR 35.63 ± 11.44 20.97 ± 7.84 14.66 ± 4.8
 Not Working 41.19 ± 12.91 24.88 ± 8.6 16.31 ± 5.73 Progressive 46.48 ± 16.25 28.69 ± 11.21 17.8 ± 6.74
p value (Mann–Whitney) 0.018 0.018 0.108 p value (Mann–Whitney) <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
Income per month (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) DMT Drug (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD)
 <500 (%) 47.44 ± 14.79 28.44 ± 10.03 19.0 ± 6.68 Yes 38.84 ± 13.67 23.46 ± 9.78 15.38 ± 5.19
 ≥500 (%) 38.24 ± 13.69 22.85 ± 9.37 15.4 ± 5.66 No 38.95 ± 14.63 22.87 ± 9.33 16.08 ± 6.5
p value (Mann–Whitney) 0.003 0.009 0.013 p value (Mann–Whitney) 0.897 0.648 0.909
Presence of Mental Disorder (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) FH of MS (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD) (Mean values ± SD)
 Yes 42.58 ± 15.62 26.04 ± 10.98 16.54 ± 6.02 Yes 36.7 ± 15.31 21.81 ± 10.75 14.88 ± 5.0
 No 36.45 ± 12.34 21.53 ± 8.52 14.92 ± 5.2 No 39.17 ± 13.69 23.47 ± 9.42 15.69 ± 5.7
p value (Mann–Whitney) <0.001 <0.001 0.005 p value (Mann–Whitney) 0.041 0.05 0.31
  1. SSCI-T, -I, -E S stigma scale for chronic illness total, internalized, externalized, SD standard deviation, EDSS expanded disability status scale, FH family history, DMT disease-modifying drug
  2. P values in bold when statistical significance was reached (p < 0.05)