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Table 3 Hypothetical sample size calculations for crossover and parallel designs in terms of successful treatment

From: Short-term test-retest-reliability of conditioned pain modulation using the cold-heat-pain method in healthy subjects and its correlation to parameters of standardized quantitative sensory testing

Patients return to normal CPM effect (rate of treatment success) Early CPM effect Late CPM effect
Crossover Parallel Crossover Parallel
100 % 6 18 45 176
75 % 10 34 122 484
50 % 18 68 272 542
25 % 84 330 1084 4332
  1. CPM Conditioned Pain Modulation. Calculations are based on the question how many subjects are needed to treat to elevate “non responders” to “normal responders” in case of 25/ 50/ 75/ 100 % treatment success. All values are given as the number of subjects for each group