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Table 2 Standing posture (body position, body movements and muscle activity) in typically developing (TD) children and in children with bilateral CP standing with (SwS) or without (SwoS) support, during three standing tasks: no-task (NT), blindfolded-task (BT), and attention-task (AT). EMG muscle activity in the rectus femoris (RF), tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus normalized to the NT condition. Paired t-tests were used to examine the influence of vision (BT and AT) with respect to the NT condition. Significant differences are bolded (p < 0.05)

From: The role of visual stimuli on standing posture in children with bilateral cerebral palsy

  TD SwoS SwS
  NT (n = 27) BT (n = 27) AT (n = 27) NT-BT
p
NT-AT
p
NT (n = 19) BT (n = 18) AT (n = 19) NT-BT
p
NT-AT
p
NT (n = 17) BT (n = 17) AT (n = 16) NT-BT
p
NT-AT
p
Body position angles
degrees, mean (SD)
Head −4a (7) −7a (5) −6a (5) 0.028 0.114 −2a (15) −2a (12) −5a (9) 0.619 0.216 1 (12) −5a (13) −6a (9) 0.119 0.015
Trunk −5b (5) −5b (5) −5b (5) 0.787 0.831 3 (7) 3 (7) 2 (8) 0.463 0.098 19 (8) 20 (10) 19 (9) 0.537 0.858
Pelvis 14 (5) 14 (5) 14 (5) 0.644 0.552 17 (6) 17 (6) 15 (7) 0.085 0.327 10 (12) 9 (12) 9 (14) 0.777 0.590
Hip 7 (6) 6 (6) 6 (6) 0.161 0.070 18 (11) 18 (12) 17 (11) 0.734 0.277 24 (14) 28 (15) 25 (15) 0.014 0.906
Knee −4c (6) −5c (6) −6c (7) 0.505 0.142 13 (22) 12 (23) 12 (23) 0.646 0.576 43 (20) 47 (22) 45 (21) 0.016 0.928
Ankle 4 (4) 4 (4) 3 (4) 0.924 0.334 8 (10) 8 (11) 8 (11) 0.285 0.837 11 (16) 10 (20) 10 (17) 0.928 0.843
Body movements ranges
degrees, mean (SD)
Head 12 (10) 8 (6) 8 (5) 0.056 0.053 25 (20) 16 (12) 16 (9) 0.037 0.038 47 (32) 35 (26) 29 (25) 0.106 0.012
Trunk 5 (3) 4 (2) 4 (3) 0.064 0.160 9 (6) 6 (2) 7 (4) 0.064 0.281 12 (6) 14 (10) 14 (7) 0.377 0.215
Pelvis 3 (2) 2 (1) 2 (2) 0.071 0.457 4 (2) 4 (1) 4 (2) 0.245 0.753 6 (3) 6 (3) 7 (3) 0.731 0.234
Hip 2 (2) 2 (1) 3 (3) 0.173 0.284 7 (4) 6 (4) 6 (4) 0.210 0.181 9 (6) 10 (6) 9 (5) 0.761 0.817
Knee 2 (2) 2 (1) 2 (2) 0.824 0.823 8 (5) 7 (6) 6 (3) 0.496 0.021 12 (5) 11 (5) 11 (5) 0.263 0.419
Ankle 2 (2) 2 (1) 2 (1) 0.739 0.956 4 (2) 4 (3) 4 (2) 0.771 0.429 7 (4) 7 (5) 6 (5) 0.807 0.702
Muscle activity
% of NT
RF   −2 (21) −1 (19) 0.694 0.875   0 (23) −8 (11) 0.968 0.007   12 (20) −2 (16) 0.029 0.689
TA   −3 (26) 2 (35) 0.530 0.774   17 (43) −8 (24) 0.109 0.172   −1 (15) −5 (11) 0.813 0.068
MG   37 (65) 5 (29) 0.006 0.328   34 (61) 0 (35) 0.030 0.964   −4 (17) −6 (14) 0.322 0.114
Soleus   16 (32) −1 (22) 0.014 0.879   13 (34) −11 (19) 0.123 0.018   −6 (13) −5 (10) 0.069 0.054
  1. aHead extension, bPosteriorly tilted trunk, cKnee hyperextension