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Table 4 Comparison of background characteristics by dexamethasone treatment of patients treated as bacterial meningitis in Ethiopia, 2011–2015

From: Adjunctive dexamethasone therapy in unconfirmed bacterial meningitis in resource limited settings: is it a risk worth taking?

Characteristics Dexamethasone No dexamethasone P value
Mean age, year (SD) 30.1 (15.0) 33.9 (16.2) 0.116
Duration of illness, days (SD) 5.2 (4.3) 5.0 (4.3) 0.683
Diagnosis of meningitis
 Confirmed 12 (85.7) 2 (14.3) 0.001*
 Probable 51 (62.2) 31 (37.8)
 Suspected 84 (42.9) 112 (57.1)
 Non-cases 67 (50.4) 66 (49.6)
Prior antibiotic treatment
 Yes 45 (43.3) 59 (56.7) 0.096
 No 169 (52.6) 152 (47.4)
Impairment of consciousness
 Yes 102 (52.0) 94 (48) 0.52
 No 112 (48.9) 117 (51.1)
Focal neurologic deficit
 Yes 22 (66.7) 11 (33.3) 0.051
 No 192 (49.0) 200 (51.0)
CSF appearance
 Turbid 37 (64.9) 20 (35.1) <0.001*
 Normal 68 (38.2) 110 (61.8)
Detection of organism by Gram stain
 Yes 11 (84.6) 2 (15.4) 0.003*
 No 89 ((43.0) 118 (57.0)
HIV status
 Positive 7 (30.4) 16 (69.6) 0.048*
 Negative 207 (51.6) 194 (48.4)
Hospital
 Jimma 52 (42.6) 70 (57.4) <0.001
 Gondar 24 (26.1) 68 (73.9)
 Hawassa 65 (76.5) 20 (23.5)
 Arba Minch 73 (57.9) 53 (42.1)
  1. *statistically significant