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Table 1 Demographic, olfactory identification scores, lifestyles and medical history of the study participants

From: Association between olfactory identification and cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly: the Shanghai aging study

  All
N = 1782
Cognitive Normal
N = 1437
MCI
N = 345
P value
Gender, male, n (%) 818(45.9) 659(45.9) 159(46.1) 0.939
Age, years, mean(SD) 70.1(7.1) 69.4(6.8) 73.0(7.8) <0.0001
Education, years, mean(SD) 12.3(3.9) 12.8(3.5) 10.4(4.9) <0.0001
MMSE, scores, mean(SD) 28.4(1.8) 28.7(1.5) 27.0(2.5) <0.0001
OI, scores, mean(SD) 8.0(2.1) 8.2(2.0) 7.1(2.3) <0.0001
Living alone, n (%) 145(8.2) 107(7.5) 38(11.1) 0.035
Cigarette smoking, n (%) 185(10.4) 141(9.9) 44(12.8) 0.117
Alcohol drinking, n (%) 142(8.0) 114(8.0) 28(8.2) 0.915
Heart disease, n (%) 194(10.9) 150(10.5) 44(12.8) 0.223
Hypertension, n (%) 962(54.0) 759(52.8) 203(58.8) 0.043
Diabetes, n (%) 247(13.9) 180(12.5) 67(19.5) 0.001
Anxiety, n (%) 42(2.4) 34(2.4) 8(2.3) 0.969
Depression, n (%) 277(15.6) 207(14.4) 70(20.4) 0.008
APOE-ε4 allele positive, n (%) 308(18.3) 251(18.4) 57(17.9) 0.837
  1. P value is for the comparison between participants with cognitive normal vs. MCI
  2. Abbreviation: SD standard deviation, MCI mild cognitive impairment, MMSE Mini-Mental State examination, APOE Apolipoprotein, OI olfactory identification