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Table 3 Factors affecting cognitive change from 3 months to 12 months in total patients

From: Factors associated with improvement or decline in cognitive function after an ischemic stroke in Korea: the Korean stroke cohort for functioning and rehabilitation (KOSCO) study

Parameters Normal Cognition (n = 1,735) Declined Cognition (n = 890)
Stable (n = 1,430) Converter (n = 93) Reverter (n = 212) P value Stable (n = 472) Converter (n = 321) Reverter (n = 97) P value
1) Baseline medical record assessments
Male, n (%) 991 (69.3) 46 (49.5) 107 (50.5) .000** 248 (52.5) 185 (57.6) 52 (53.6) .362
Age, (mean ± SD) 61.52 ± 12.53 a 69.44 ± 11.16 b 73.75 ± 8.85 c .000** 70.32 ± 11.07 a 66.34 ± 11.54 b 72.32 ± 9.45 ab .000**
Education, n (%)         
 Uneducated 114 (8.0) 25 (26.9) 44 (20.8) .000** 35 (7.4) 11 (3.4) 13 (13.4) .000**
 0–3 years 46 (3.2) 10 (10.8) 12 (5.7)   40 (8.5) 26 (8.1) 11 (11.3)  
 4–6 years 189 (13.2) 25 (26.9) 52 (24.5)   117 (24.8) 73 (22.7) 27 (27.8)  
 7–9 years 222 (15.5) 17 (18.3) 45 (21.2)   113 (23.9) 70 (21.8) 21 (21.6)  
 10–12 years 468 (32.7) 8 (8.6) 36 (17.0)   135 (28.6) 93 (29.0) 19 (19.6)  
 13 years– 391 (27.3) 8 (8.6) 23 (10.8)   32 (6.8) 48 (15.0) 6 (6.2)  
BMI (kg/m2), (mean ± SD) 24.10 ± 3.28 a 23.59 ± 3.61 ab 23.49 ± 3.33 b .023* 23.35 ± 3.08 23.47 ± 3.30 22.62 ± 3.27 .071
Risk factors of stroke, n (%)         
 Hypertension 779 (54.5) 63 (67.7) 118 (88.7) .030* 275 (58.3) 178 (55.5) 68 (70.1) .037*
 Diabetes Mellitus 206 (14.4) 15 (16.1) 24 (11.3) .412 70 (14.8) 44 (13.7) 22 (22.7) .091
 Coronary heart disease 98 (6.9) 9 (9.7) 15 (7.1) .587 40 (8.5) 20 (6.2) 5 (5.2) .339
 Atrial fibrillation 118 (8.3) 14 (15.1) 27 (12.7) .014* 68 (14.4) 37 (11.5) 11 (11.3) .433
 Hyperlipidemia 246 (17.2) 12 (12.9) 39 (18.4) .493 54 (11.4) 42 (13.1) 15 (15.5) .505
 Obesity 190 (13.3) 14 (15.1) 23 (10.8) .522 49 (10.4) 40 (12.5) 4 (4.1) .063
 Family history 135 (9.4) 5 (5.4) 20 (9.4) .420 48 (10.2) 26 (8.1) 7 (7.2) .483
Smoking, n (%)         
 Current smokers 462 (32.3) 17 (18.3) 44 (20.8) .000** 127 (26.9) 87 (27.1) 29 (29.9) .859
 Former smokers 202 (14.1) 10 (10.8) 19 (9.0)   55 (11.7) 39 (12.1) 8 (8.2)  
 Never smokers 766 (53.6) 66 (71.0) 149 (70.3)   290 (61.4) 195 (60.7) 60 (61.9)  
Alcohol consumption, n (%)         
 None 793 (55.5) 62 (66.7) 144 (67.9) .002** 327 (69.3) 202 (63.0) 67 (69.1) .253
 Moderate 452 (31.6) 23 (24.7) 42 (19.8)   97 (20.6) 72 (22.4) 21 (21.6)  
 Heavy 185 (12.9) 8 (8.6) 26 (12.3)   48 (10.2) 47 (14.6) 9 (9.3)  
2) Stroke characteristics         
Ischemic type (TOAST)         
 Large–artery atherosclerosis 641 (44.8) 58 (62.4) 101 (47.6) .062 229 (48.5) 173 (53.9) 56 (57.7) .572
 Small-artery occlusion 373 (26.1) 14 (15.1) 53 (25.0)   85 (18.0) 57 (17.8) 15 (15.5)  
 Cardioembolism 156 (10.9) 6 (6.5) 24 (11.3)   74 (15.7) 39 (12.1) 9 (9.3)  
 Other determined 115 (8.0) 4 (4.3) 12 (5.7)   29 (6.1) 14 (4.4) 5 (5.2)  
 Undetermined ischemic stroke 145 (10.1) 11 (11.8) 22 (10.4)   55 (11.7) 38 (11.8) 12 (12.4)  
Ischemic location         
 Rt. hemisphere 680 (47.6) 46 (49.5) 99 (46.7) .580 178 (37.7) 117 (36.4) 41 (42.3) .698
 Lt. hemisphere 648 (45.3) 37 (39.8) 94 (44.3)   262 (55.5) 185 (57.6) 48 (49.5)  
 Both hemisphere 102 (7.1) 10 (10.8) 19 (9.0)   178 (37.7) 19 (5.9) 8 (8.2)  
Affected level         
 Cortical level 440 (30.8) 37 (39.8) 70 (33.0) .007** 191 (40.5) 139 (43.3) 41 (42.3) .878
 Subcortical level 454 (31.7) 22 (23.7) 49 (23.1)   115 (24.4) 83 (25.9) 25 (25.8)  
 Brainstem level 330 (23.1) 13 (14.0) 58 (27.4)   63 (13.3) 41 (12.8) 14 (14.4)  
 Multiple level 206 (14.4) 21 (22.6) 35 (16.5)   103 (21.8) 58 (18.1) 17 (17.5)  
3) Treatment characteristics         
 IV thrombolysis 104 (7.3) 7 (7.5) 13 (6.1) .826 43 (9.1) 29 (9.0) 15 (15.5) .136
 IA thrombolysis 21 (1.5) 3 (3.2) 4 (1.9) .404 23 (4.9) 9 (2.8) 2 (2.1) .208
 IV heparin 121 (8.5) 5 (5.4) 17 (8.0) .573 33 (7.0) 18 (5.6) 10 (10.3) .271
 Antiplatelet agent 1,140 (79.7) 77 (82.8) 166 (78.3) .668 333 (70.6) 240 (74.8) 65 (67.0) .241
 Rehabilitation Therapy 386 (27.0) 29 (31.2) 59 (27.8) .669 187 (60.4) 116 (36.1) 43 (44.3) .311
 Cognitive Therapy 56 (3.9) 4 (4.3) 9 (4.2) .961 28 (5.9) 33 (10.3) 11 (11.3) .041*
4) Functional assessments         
Cognitive function (K-MMSE)         
 3 months from onset 28.09 ± 2.66 a 23.67 ± 3.60 b 26.81 ± 3.53 c .000** 16.14 ± 9.81 a 17.87 ± 7.81 b 16.34 ± 7.27 ab .024*
 12 months from onset 28.14 ± 2.75 a 27.41 ± 3.19 a 22.00 ± 4.80 b .000** 16.42 ± 10.09 a 24.11 ± 5.69 b 11.03 ± 7.46 c .000**
 Variation (from 3 months to 12 months) 0.05 ± 1.07 a 3.41 ± 1.23 b −4.81 ± 2.91 c .000** 0.29 ± 1.09 a 6.25 ± 4.19 b −5.31 ± 2.81 c .000**
Stroke Severity, ADL, Motor, Gait, Depression, QoL (3 months from onset)         
 NIHSS 0.77 ± 1.85 a 1.11 ± 2.03 ab 1.12 ± 2.02 b .015* 5.09 ± 6.86 a 3.12 ± 4.62 b 5.25 ± 4.63 a .000**
 mRS 0.99 ± 1.02 a 1.44 ± 1.28 b 1.43 ± 1.20 b .000** 2.57 ± 1.68 a 2.17 ± 1.52 b 3.15 ± 1.29 c .000**
 FIM 120.00 ± 12.73 a 114.16 ± 17.39 b 113.93 ± 18.05 b .000** 88.70 ± 38.13 a 100.18 ± 30.85 b 82.80 ± 30.61 a .000**
 K-MBI 95.44 ± 11.90 a 90.03 ± 16.88 b 89.88 ± 17.34 b .000** 69.11 ± 36.99 a 79.71 ± 28.65 b 63.41 ± 30.94 a .000**
 FMA 94.11 ± 15.80 91.19 ± 18.70 89.88 ± 17.34 .119 72.75 ± 35.71 a 81.68 ± 30.77 b 63.65 ± 35.07 c .000**
 FAC 4.66 ± 0.87 a 6.59 ± 4.07 b 6.74 ± 4.40 b .000** 3.10 ± 2.03 a 3.65 ± 1.77 b 2.66 ± 1.83 a .000**
 GDS 4.95 ± 3.79 a 6.59 ± 4.07 b 6.74 ± 4.40 b .000** 7.25 ± 4.11 a 7.30 ± 4.32 a 9.31 ± 3.92 b .006**
 EQ-5D 0.78 ± 0.28 a 0.69 ± 0.33 b 0.65 ± 0.36 b .000** 0.44 ± 0.41 a 0.53 ± 0.40 b 0.31 ± 0.37 c .000**
  1. n, Number; SD, Standard Deviation; BMI, Body Mass Index; TOAST, Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment; Rt, Right; Lt, Left; IV, Intra-Venous; IA, Intra-Artrial; K-MMSE, Korean Mini Mental State Examination; NIHSS, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale; mRS, modified Rankin Scale; ADL, Activity of Daily Living; FIM, Functional Independence Measure; K-MBI, Korean version of Modified Barthel Index; FMA, Fugl-Meyer Assessment; FAC, Functional Ambulation Categories; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; QoL, Quality of Life; EQ-5D, EuroQol-5D
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
  3. abc Post HOC group