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Table 2 Amount and intensity of daily physical activity in HC and PwMS assessed with wearable device (SWAmini) reported as weighted mean (± SD) and subjective assessment with IPAQ long version reported as median (interquartile range) from a 7-day period

From: Subjective and objective assessment of physical activity in multiple sclerosis and their relation to health-related quality of life

   Healthy controls PwMS p-value Cohen’s d
N = 30 N = 26
Objective (SWAmini) Step count (steps/hour) 563.45 (±155.90) 430.66 (±171.68) .004 0.85
Mean METs (mean/day) 1.77 (±.28) 1.53 (±.16) <.001 0.86
Active METs (mean/day) 4.41 (±.59) 3.90 (±.46) .001 0.86
Total EE (kcal/hour) 387.40 (±237.40) 214.08 (±194.20) .004 0.73
Active EE (kcal/hour) 118.13 (±110.65) 37.89 (±41.73) .001 0.75
Active EE (MET*min/day) 410.79 (±257.07) 217.70 (±116.19) .001 0.75
LPA (min/hour) 2.98 (±2.47) 3.90 (±3.27) .249 0.37
MPA (min/hour) 5.38 (±2.63) 3.73 (±1.80) .008 0.63
MVPA (min/hour) 6.23 (±3.21) 3.91 (±1.93) .002 0.72
VPA (min/hour) .844 (±.927) *3 .176 (±.403) *6 .001 0.72
VVPA (min/hour) .148 (±.426) *21 .001 (±.002) *25 .084 0.35
Full days worn (days/period) 7.23 (±1.36) 7.81 (±1.77) .220 -
Mean daily wearing time (hours/day) 15.38 (±1.73) 14.29 (±1.58) .017 -
Self-perceived (IPAQ) Walking duration (min/day) 27.86 (45.71) *2 34.29 (71.14) *2 .664  
MPA duration (min/day) 51.43 (91.79) *6 0.00 (53.57) *14 .010  
MVPA duration (min/day) 68.19 (101.79) *6 0.00 (60.00) *13 .016  
VPA duration (min/day) 2.86 (25.71) *14 0.00 (17.14) *17 .259  
Total duration (min/day) 108.57 (120.36) 81.43 (135.00) .327  
Total EE (MET*min/day) 516.57 (502.04) 501.14 (596.44) .440  
Work EE (mean % of total EE and interquartile range) 19.12% (31.22) *8, 6 unemployed 12.66% (17.34) *5, 14 unemployed .089  
Transportation EE (mean % of total EE and interquartile range) 34.41% (43.38) *2 28.42% (40.53) *2  
Domestic EE (mean % of total EE and interquartile range) 24.93% (22.43) *2 28.34% (33.76) *3  
Leisure EE (mean % of total EE and interquartile range) 21.54% (28.70) *4 30.58% (36.59) *2  
IPAQ category (n and % of group):    .150  
 Low 5 (17.2%) 10 (40.0%)
 Moderate 21 (72.4%) 14 (56.0%)
 High 3 (10.3%) 1 (4.0%)
  1. Subjects were instructed to wear SWAmini during the waking day excluding water activities. P-values for between-group differences of SWAmini parameters refer to t-tests. IPAQ-data (comprising 29 HC and 25 PwMS) were compared between groups using Mann–Whitney-U-test, except for χ2-test used to compare the distribution of subjects into different IPAQ physical activity levels and the percentages of total EE spent in different activity domains. Please note that percentage values in IPAQ work EE were set to a value of 0 for unemployed subjects. Numbers of subjects per group that were not assigned any activity for MPA/VPA/VVPA are given with asterisk; these individuals were assigned a value of 0 for the calculation of means