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Table 1 Research-based studies of manual therapy use for headache disorders

From: A critical review of manual therapy use for headache disorders: prevalence, profiles, motivations, communication and self-reported effectiveness

Authors Year Country/ Region Population/ Profession Study Method Sample size Themes † Prevalence use based on Headache Groupings
Ailliet et al 2010 [65] Europe (Belgium) Manual Therapy population/Chiropractic Postal questionnaire by chiropractors 517 patients 1 Headache: Chiropractic 1.9%
Bethell et al 2013 [76] North America General population Secondary analysis of national survey 2411 2  
Bigal et al 2008 [19] North America General population Longitudinal study following a cohort of headache sufferers Chronic migraine (520), Episodic migraine (9424) 1 Chronic migraine: Chiropractic 36.2% Physiotherapist 13.3% Episodic migraine: Chiropractic 25.7%, Physiotherapy 4.2%
Brown et al 2014 [61] Australia Manual Therapy population/Chiropractic Cross-sectional survey completed by patients 486 1 Headaches: Chiropractic 5.5%
Cherkin et al 2002 [62] North America Manual Therapy population/Chiropractic Practitioner completed questionnaire 2550 1 Headaches: Chiropractic Massachusetts 4.6%, Arizona 6.4%
Cooke et al 2010 [49] North America General population Telephone survey to public 1210 1 Migraine: Chiropractic 6%, Massage 2%, Osteopathy 1%
Coulter et al 2002 [66] North America Manual Therapy population/Chiropractic Patient questionnaires 1275 1 Headaches: Chiropractic 4.0%
Brown et al, 2013 [69] Australia Manual Therapy population/Chiropractic Cross-sectional general population survey questionnaire 757 1 Headache: Chiropractic 45.5%
French et al 2013 [64] Australia Manual Therapy population/Chiropractic Cross-sectional observational practitioner survey 4464 1 Headaches: Chiropractic 4%
Gaul et al 2009 [70] Europe (Germany/Austria) Headache clinic population Questionnaire based patient survey 432 1,2,3,4 Mixed primary headaches: Massage 46.1%, Physiotherapy 27.8%
Gaul et al 2011 [72] Europe (Germany/Austria) Headache clinic population Questionnaire-based survey 448 1,2 Migraine (78.5%): Physiotherapy 18.7%, Massage 56.4%
Gaumer G 2006 [56] North America General population Random telephone survey 800 1 Headaches: Chiropractic 5.3%
Goksel et al 2014 [73] Europe (Turkey) Headache clinic population Patient questionnaire through interview 110 1,2,4 Migraine (64.6%): Massage 51%
Hartvigsen et al 2003 [68] Europe (Denmark) Manual Therapy/Chiropractic Questionnaire data collected by practitioners 1897 patients 1 Headache: Chiropractic 4%
Jackson P 2001 [63] North America Manual Therapy population/Chiropractic Postal questionnaire to chiropractors 1500 1 Headaches: Chiropractic 15.4%
Kristoffersen et al 2012 [20] Europe (Norway) General population Cross-sectional epidemiological survey 405 1,2 All Primary Headaches: Chiropractic 28% Physiotherapy 52%
Kristoffersen et al 2013 [79] Europe (Norway) General population Cross-sectional epidemiological postal survey and clinical interview 253 primary 82 secondary 4  
Lambert et al 2010 [77] Europe (UK) Headache clinic population Self-administered questionnaire 92 2,3  
Lyngberg et al 2005 [1, 52] Europe (Denmark) General population Medical doctor interviews 740 1 Mostly migraine: Chiropractic 9% Physiotherapy 5%
Malone et al 2012 [71] North America General population On-line survey via migraine website 2735 1 Migraine: Massage 29.7%
Minen et al 2014 North America Headache clinic population Secondary analysis of baseline questionnaire data 225 1,2 Migraine with/without aura: Chiropractic 27.1%, Massage 18.2%, Physiotherapy 4.9%
Morin et al 2014 [54] North America (Quebec) Manual Therapy population Prospective survey 1402 1 Migraine: Osteopathy 1.7% Headaches: Osteopathy 2.7%
Ndetan et al 2009 [57] North America General population Secondary Survey analysis 31248 1 Headache: Chiropractic 15.1%
Orrock P 2009 [75] Australia Manual Therapy population/Osteopathy Mailed practitioner questionnaire 2238 patient records 1 Headache: Osteopathy 10%
Ossendorf et al 2009 [60] Europe (Germany) Pain clinic population Physician-administered structured interview and questionnaires 288 (136 with Headache) 1,4 Headache: Chiropractic 22%, Physiotherapy 35%, Osteopathy 9%, Massage 54%
Rossi et al 2005 [53] Europe (Italy) Headache clinic population Physician-administered structured interview 481 1,2,3,4 Migraine: Massage 10.1%, Chiropractic 8.9%, Osteopathy 2.7%
Rossi et al 2006 [58] Italy Headache clinic population Physician-administered structured interview 110 1,2,3,4 Headache (CTTH): Chiropractic 21.9%, Massage 17.8%
Rossi et al 2008 [59] Europe (Italy) Headache clinic population Physician administered structured interview 100 1,2,4 Headache (cluster): Chiropractic 12%, Acupressure 12%
Rubinstein et al 2000 [67] Europe (Netherland) Manual Therapy population/Chiropractic Retrospective patient questionnaires 833 1 Headache: Chiropractic 7%
Sanderson et al 2013 [21] USA, Canada, UK, Germany, France and Australia General population Web-based screening questionnaire 16663 1,3 Chronic migraine: 10% USA Canada 10%, France/UK 0%, Germany 1%, Australia 14% Episodic Migraine: USA 7% Canada 4%, France/UK 1%, Germany 6%, Australia 14%
S von Peter et al 2002 [78] North America Headache clinic population Patient interview using a standardized questionnaire 73 2,3,4 Tension, Migraine (27%) and other headaches: Chiropractic 15.1%, Massage 42.5%
Vukovic et al 2010 [48] Europe (Croatia) General population Random cross-sectional survey questionnaire 616 1 Migraine: Chiropractic 9.5%, Physiotherapy 19.4% Tension headache: Chiropractic 4.0%, Physiotherapy 12.2%
Wells et al 2010 [51] North America General population National cross-sectional survey sample 23,393 1 Migraine 18.5% and Headaches 15.7%: Chiropractic/massage pooled
Wells et al 2011 [50] North America General population National cross-sectional survey sample 23,393 1,3 Migraine: Chiropractic 15.4%, Massage 15.1%
Xue et al 2008 [55] Australia General population Cross-sectional telephone survey 1067 1 Headaches: Chiropractic 9.3%
  1. Themes †: 1 = MT prevalence use, 2 = Profile and motivations, 3 = Concurrent use, 4 = Self-reported effectiveness